2.500 | Spring 2009 | Graduate

Desalination and Water Purification


This course has no single textbook, but instead draws on a wide range of publications and texts. Lectures and assigned readings by session are presented below, followed by a list of books kept on reserve for background reading.

1 Introduction to water supply

Specter, Michael. “The Last Drop.” The New Yorker, October 23, 2006.

Executive Summary, “Water for People, Water for Life.” 1st United Nations World Water Development Report, March 22, 2003. (PDF)

Reynolds, T. D., and P. A. Richards. “Water Quality.” In Unit Operations and Processes in Environmental Engineering. Boston, MA: PWS Publishing, 1995, pp. 78-91. ISBN: 9780534948849.

Introduction (PDF - 6.7MB)

2 Characteristics of seawater. Concentration and molality

Stewart, Robert H. “Definition of Salinity.” Section 6.1 in Introduction to Physical Oceanography. Texas A & M University, 2008. (PDF) (Courtesy of Robert H. Stewart. Used with permission.)

ASTM Standard D1141 1998 (2008). “Standard for Practice for the Preparation of Substitute Ocean Water.” West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2008. DOI: 10.1520/D1141-98R08.

3 Gibbs energy. Work of separation Dean, Cornelia. “Rising Acidity is Threatening Food Web of Oceans, Science Panel Says.” New York Times, January 30, 2009.
4 Chemical activity. Work of separation  
5 Separation at finite recovery. Osmosis  
6 Reverse osmosis. Solution-diffusion model Fritzmann, C., et al. “State-of-the-Art Reverse Osmosis Desalination.” Desalination 216 (October 2007): 1-76.
7 Solution-diffusion model. Crossflow separators Paul, D. R. “Reformulation of the Solution-Diffusion Theory of Reverse Osmosis.” Journal of Membrane Science 241 (October 2004): 371-386.
8 Concentration polarization. RO System engineering

Sauvet-Guichon, Bruno. “Ashkelon Desalination Plant — A Successful Challenge.” Desalination 203 (February 2007): 75-81.

Reverse Osmosis Systems (PDF - 2.9MB)

9 Introduce term project. Electrodialysis Guest lecture: Amy Smith (PDF - 1.3MB) (Courtesy of Amy Smith. Used with permission.)
10 Visit to Koch Membrane Systems Guest lecture: John McArdle (PDF - 4.7MB) (Courtesy of Koch Membrane Systems. Used with permission.)
11 Visit GE Ionics  
12 Electrodialysis

Strathmann, Heiner. “The Ion-Exchange Equilibrium and the Donnan Potential,” and “The Electrochemical Equilibrium.” Sections 3.1.2 and 3.1.3, chapter 2 in Ion-Exchange Membrane Separation Processes. Boston, MA: Elsevier, 2004. ISBN: 9780444502360.

Probstein, Ronald F. “The Electrolytic Cell,” “Electrodialysis,” and “Ion Exchange.” Sections 6.1-6.3 in Physicochemical Hydrodynamics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, 2003. ISBN: 9780471458302.

Strathmann, Heiner. “Electromembrane Processes: State-of-the-Art Processes and Recent Developments.” European Desalination Society, 2007. (PDF - 1.4MB) (Courtesy of Heiner Strathmann. Used with permission.)

13 Electrodialysis (cont.). Ion exchange  
14 Introduction to thermal desalination  
15 Scale formation. Distillation. Least heat of distillation  
16 GOR. Combined power generation and distillation El-Sayed, Y. M., and R. S. Silver. “Fundamentals of Distillation.” Chapter 2 in Spielger, K. S., and A. D. K. Laird. Principles of Desalination. 2nd ed., Part A. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1980. ISBN: 9780126567014.
17 Single effect distillation. Multi-effect distillation  
18 Single-stage flash distillation. Multi-stage flash evaporation Multi-Effect Distillation and Multi-Stage Flash Evaporation (PDF - 4.7MB)
19 Vapor compression distillation. Relative desalination costs. Freeze distillation Miller, James E. “Review of Water Resources and Desalination Technologies.” Sandia National Labs (March 2003): SAND 2003-0800. (PDF) (Courtesy of Sandia National Labs. Used with permission.)
20 Discussion of term project. Details about Haiti Guest lecture: Amanda Adams, Mercy and Sharing (PDF - 3.2MB) (Courtesy of Ray Ginther and Amy Smith. Used with permission.)
21 Disinfection. Chlorination. Pop quiz!

Hammer, Mark J., and Mark J. Hammer, Jr. “Water Processing.” Chapter 7 in Water and Wastewater Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007. ISBN: 9780131745421.

Murcott, Susan. “Water and Sanitation Literacy Quiz.” (PDF) (Courtesy of Susan Murcott. Used with permission.)

22 Wastewater treatment in the developing world

Harleman, D. R. F., and S. Murcott. “An Innovative Approach to Urban Wastewater Treatment in the Developing World.” Water21: Magazine of the International Water Association (June 2001): 1-13.

Ujang, Z., and M. Henze. “Sustainable Sanitation for Developing Countries.” Chapter 1 in Municipal Wastewater Management in Developing Countries: Principles and Engineering. London, England: IWA Publishing, 2006. ISBN: 9781843390305.

Tarr, J. A., et al. “Water and Wastes: A Retrospective Assessment of Wastewater Technology in the United States, 1800-1932.” Technology and Culture 25 (April 1984): 226-263.

Tarr, J. A. “Origins of the Piped Society.” Appendix, in del Porto, David, and Carol Steinfeld. The Composting Toilet System Book. Concord, MA: Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention, 2000, pp. 209-233. ISBN: 9780966678307.

Guest lecture: Susan Murcott (PDF - 7.7MB) (Courtesy of Susan Murcott. Used with permission.)

23 Solar energy. Solar collectors. Solar stills

Fath, Hassan E. S., et al. “PV and Thermally Driven Small-Scale, Stand-Alone Solar Desalination Systems with Very Low Maintenance Needs.” Desalination 225 (2008): 58-69.

Ettouney, H., and L. Rizzuti. “Solar Desalination: A Challenge for Sustainable Fresh Water in the 21st Century.” Chapter 1 in Solar Desalination for the 21st Century: A Review of Modern Technologies and Researched on Desalination Coupled to Renewable Energies. Edited by Lucio Rizzuti, Hisham M. Ettouney, and Andrea Cipollina. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer, 2007. ISBN: 9781402055065.

24 Solar desalination systems; CSP water/power cogeneration Trieb, Franz, et al. “AQUA-CSP: Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination.” Stuttgart, Germany: DLR, November 2007. (PDF - 7.4MB)
25 Particulate removal. Flocculation. Summary Conclusion (PDF - 5.1MB)
26 Final project presentations  

Reserve Reading

Wilf, Mark. The Guide Book to Membrane Desalination Technology. D’Aquila, Italy: Balaban Desalination Publications, 2007. ISBN: 9780866890656.

Sandler, S. I. Chemical, Biochemical, and Engineering Thermodynamics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006. ISBN: 9780471661740.

Twort, A. C., D. D. Ratnayaka, and M. J. Brandt. Water Supply. 5th ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001. ISBN: 9780340720189.

Baker, R. W. Membrane Technology and Applications. New York, NY: Wiley, 2004. ISBN: 9780470854457.

Hammer, M. J., and M. J. Hammer, Jr. Water and Wastewater Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007. ISBN: 9780131745421.

Reynolds, T. D., and P. A. Richards. Unit Operations and Processes in Environmental Engineering. Boston, MA: PWS Publishing, 1995. ISBN: 9780534948849.

Glasstone, S. Thermodynamics for Chemists. New York, NY: D. Van Nostrand, 1947.

Strathmann, H. Ion-Exchange Membrane Separation Processes. Boston, MA: Elsevier, 2004. ISBN: 9780444502360.

Spielger, K. S., and Y. M. El-Sayed. A Desalination Primer. D’Aquila, Italy: Balaban Desalination Publications, 1994. ISBN: 9780866890342.

El-Dessouky, H. T., and H. M. Ettouney. Fundamentals of Salt Water Desalination. New York, NY: Elsevier, 2002. ISBN: 9780444508102.