Readings are taken from the following required texts:

Hecht, Eugene. *Optics*. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 2001. ISBN: 9780805385663.

Goodman, Joseph W. *Introduction to Fourier Optics*. Englewood, CO: Roberts & Co., 2004. ISBN: 9780974707723.

SES # | TOPICS | READINGS | KEY DATES |
---|---|---|---|

1 | Introduction; brief history of optics; absorption, refraction; laws of reflection and refraction | Hecht Ch. 1 (all), 3.6, 4.4.1, 4.5, 4.7 (but not 4.7.1), 5.4.1, and 5.5 | |

2 | Laws of reflection and refraction; prisms; dispersion; paraboloidal reflector | Hecht 5.1, 5.2.1, and 5.4.2 | HW 1 out |

3 | Perfect focusing; paraboloidal reflector; ellipsoidal refractor; introduction to imaging; perfect on-axis imaging using aspheric lenses; imperfect imaging using spherical surfaces; paraxial approximation; ray transfer matrices | Hecht 5.2.2 and 6.2 (but not the part on mirrors) | |

4 | Sign conventions; thin lens; real and virtual images | Hecht 5.2.3 (“Thin-Lens Equations” and “Focal Points and Planes” only) | HW 2 out |

5 | Imaging at finite distances with thin lenses; thick lenses; the human eye; image formation by a composite lens | Hecht 5.2.3 (“Finite Imagery” and “Thin-Lens Combinations”), 5.7.1, and 5.7.2 | HW 1 due |

6 | Aperture stop; entrance and exit pupils; numerical aperture (NA); field stop; entrance and exit windows; field of view (FoV) | Hecht 5.3 | HW 3 out |

7 | Ray tracing with mirrors; basic optical systems: single lens magnifier, eyepiece, microscope | Hecht 5.4.2-3, 5.7.3-7, and 6.2 (“Matrix Analysis of Mirrors”) | HW 2 due |

8 | Basic optical systems (cont.): telescope; chromatic aberration; geometrical aberrations: spherical, coma | Hecht 6.3 | |

9 | Geometrical aberrations (cont.): astigmatism, field curvature, distortion; optical design demo; GRadient INdex (GRIN) optics: quadratic and axial profile; introduction to the Hamiltonian formulation | Hecht 6.4 | HW 3 due |

10 | Quiz 1 | ||

11 | Hamiltonian formulation of ray tracing; analogies between Hamiltonian optics and Hamiltonian mechanics; introduction to waves | Hecht Ch. 2 (all) | |

12 | 1D wave equation; complex (phasor) representation; 3D waves: plane, spherical | Hecht 7.1-7.2 | HW 4 out |

13 | 3D waves: plane, spherical; dispersive waves; group velocity; spatial frequencies; introduction to electromagnetics; Maxwell’s equations; derivation of the wave equation for light | Hecht 3.1, 3.2, 3.3.1-3.3.2, and 3.5 (but not 3.5.1) | |

14 | Maxwell’s equations (cont.); polarization justification of the refractive index; electromagnetic energy flux and Poynting’s vector; irradiance (intensity) | Hecht 9.1-9.5 | HW 5 out |

15 | Interference; Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers; Huygens principle; Young interferometer; Fresnel diffraction | Hecht 10.1 and 10.3.1-10.3.4 | HW 4 due |

16 | Gratings: amplitude, phase, sinusoidal, binary |
Hecht 10.2.8 Goodman 4.4.3-4.4.4 |
HW 6 out |

17 | Fraunhofer diffraction; review of Fourier transforms and theorems |
Hecht 10.2 and 11.2 Goodman 4.3, 4.4.1-4.4.2, and 4.5.2 |
HW 5 due |

18 | Spatial filtering; the transfer function of Fresnel propagation; Fourier transforming properties of lenses | Goodman 5.1-5.2 and 8.1.1 | HW 7 out |

19 | 4F system (telescope with finite conjugates) as a cascade of Fourier transforms; binary amplitude and phase pupil masks; Point Spread Function (PSF) |
Hecht 11.3.1-11.3.3 Goodman 6.1.1-6.1.2 and 6.2 |
HW 6 due |

20 | Shift invariance; Amplitude Transfer Function (ATF); lateral and angular magnification in the 4F system; relationship between NA, PSF, and ATF; sampling and the Space Bandwidth Product (SBP); advanced spatial filtering: pupil engineering, phase contrast imaging; Talbot effect | Goodman 8.1.2 and 8.3 | HW 7 due |

21 | Quiz 2 | ||

22 | Temporal and spatial coherence; spatially incoherent imaging; Optical Transfer Function (OTF) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF); comparison of coherent and incoherent imaging | HW 8 out | |

23 | Imaging with a single lens; resolution | ||

24 | Project presentations | HW 8 due | |

25 | Resolution (cont.); defocused optical systems | ||

26 | Depth of focus and depth of field; deconvolution and Tikhonov regularization; polarization; wave plates; effects of polarization on high-NA optical systems |