21L.705 | Fall 2010 | Undergraduate
Major Authors: America's Literary Scientists

Related Resources


Citation Guidelines
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed.) offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Annotated Bibliography
This link provides information about annotated bibliographies.

Marx, Leo. The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780195133516. [Preview with Google Books]

Ninteenth-Century Exploration

Captain Cook Society
Excerpts from Cook’s journals, many illustrations and images from his voyages.

Captain Cook’s Published Works
List of published works at Project Gutenberg.

Wilkes Exploring Expedition
Links to Smithsonian site which houses many of Wilkes’ collections.

Philbrick, Nathaniel. Sea of Glory: America’s Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842. New York, NY: Penguin, 2004. ISBN: 9780142004838.

Charles Darwin, The Voyage of the Beagle
Includes chapters on the Galapagos for background on Melville’s “The Encantadas.”

Eighteenth and Ninteenth-Century Science

Semonin, Paul. “Peale’s Mastodon: The Skeleton in Our Closet”.

Victorian Science
Literature, history, & culture in the age of Victoria

Spurzheim, J. G. Phrenology Or The Doctrine of the Mental Phenomena. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2007. ISBN: 9780548081822.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Theory of Colours. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 2006. ISBN: 9780486448053. [Preview with Google Books]

Goldsmith, Oliver. The Complete Works of Oliver Goldsmith. Garden City, NY: General Books, 2009. ISBN: 9781150986598. [Preview with Google Books]

Chambers, Robert. Vestiges of The Natural History of Creation. Charleston, SC: Nabu Press, 2010. ISBN: 9781177081580. [Preview with Google Books]

Complete Works of Charles Darwin
Includes Lyell’s Principles of Geology.

Charles Lyell
The Victorian Web — literature, history, and culture in the age of Victoria.

Georges Cuvier
The Victorian Web — literature, history and culture in the age of Victoria.

Walls, Laura Dassow. ““Hero of Knowledge, Be Our Tribute Thine:” Alexander von Humboldt in Victorian America”. Northeastern Naturalist 8 (2001):121-134.


Wilson, Eric. “Melville, Darwin, and the Great Chain of Being”.

Kelley, W. “Rozoko in the Pacific.” In “Whole Oceans Away”: Melville and the Pacific. Edited by Jill Barnum, Wyn Kelley and Christopher Sten. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780873388931.

Hillway, Tyrus. “Melville as Critic of Science”. Modern Language Notes 65, no. 6 (June 1950): 411-414.

Karcher, Carolyn L. “Melville’s “The ‘Gees”: A Forgotten Satire on Scientific Racism”. American Quarterly 27, no. 4 (October 1975): 421-442.

Tarnmoor, Salvator R. “The Encantadas, or Enchanted Isles”.

Melville, Herman. The Piazza Tales. Sanibel, FL: Book Jungle, 2008. ISBN: 9781605976921. [Preview with Google Books].

The Making of America
Cornell University Library. Nineteenth-century American books and periodicals. First publications of Melville’s stories in magazines.

Hughes, Henry. “Seeing, Unseeing: The Historical Amasa Delano and His VOYAGES”.

Whales and Whaling

Matthew Fontaine Maury
Grace Galleries, Inc. In his lifetime Maury wrote many papers and treatises on oceanography for scientific journals and became internationally recognized for his work and was awarded many medals and honorary degrees.

Maury, Matthew Fontaine. Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts. Charleston, SC: Nabu Press, 2010. ISBN: 9781148183299. [Preview with Google Books]

Beale, Thomas. “The Natural History of the Sperm Whale”.

Scoresby, William. An Account of the Arctic Regions With A History and Description of the Northern Whale-Fishery. Charleston, SC: Nabu Press, 2010. ISBN: 9781149269152. [Preview with Google Books]

Browne, John Ross. Etchings Of A Whaling Cruise: With Notes Of A Sojourn On The Island Of Zanzibar, To Which Is Appended A Brief History Of The Whale Fishery (1846). Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2008. ISBN: 9780548999356. [Preview with Google Books]

New Bedford Whaling Museum To Show Whaling Prints.” Antiques And The Arts Online, February 17, 2009.

Bouchier, Ian A. D. “Some Experiences of Ships’ Surgeons During the Early Days of the Sperm Whale Fishery.” British Medical Journal 285 (December 18-25, 1982): 1811-1813.

Watching Whales Watching Us.” The New York Times, July 8, 2009.


American Transcendentalism Web
This interlinked hypertext was first created in Spring 1999 by Virginia Commonwealth University graduate students studying in Professor Ann Woodlief’s class in Studies in American Transcendentalism.

Emerson’s Nature
Includes works of Ralph Waldo Emerson.

Henry David Thoreau

Baym, Nina. “Thoreau’s View of Science.” Journal of the History of Ideas 26, no. 2 (April-June 1965): 221-234.

Walls, Laura Dassow. “Textbooks and Texts from the Brooks: Inventing Scientific Authority in America.” American Quarterly 49, no. 1 (March 1997): 1-25.

Thoreau, Henry David. “American Transcendentalism Web”.
Thoreau page at American Transcendentalism Web site, ed. Virginia Woodlief.

Henry David Thoreau
Thoreau page at American Authors site, ed. Donna Campbell. Bibliography and texts.

The Thoreau Reader
Annotated works of Henry David Thoreau. A project in cooperation with the Thoreau Society

Richardson, Robert D. “Thoreau and Science”.

Sarah Orne Jewett

Perspectives in American Literature
A research and reference guide - an ongoing project. A brief overview of regional writing.

Brown, Bill. “Regional Artifacts (The Life of Things in the Work of Sarah Orne Jewett).” American Literary History 14, no. 2 (June 2002): 195-226.

Edith Wharton

Kim, Sharon. “Lamarckism and the Construction of Transcendence in The House of Mirth.” Studies in the Novel 38, no. 2 (Summer 2006): 187-210.

Goldsmith, Meredith. “The Year of the Rose: Jewish Masculinity in The House of Mirth.” Modern Fiction Studies 51, no. 2 (Summer 2005): 374-392.


Goldner, Ellen J. “Other(ed) Ghosts: Gothicism and the Bonds of Reason in Melville, Chesnutt, and Morrison.” MELUS 24, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 59-83.

Morrison, Toni. “Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature.” Michigan Quarterly Review XXVIII, no. 1 (Winter 1989): 1-34.

Course Info
As Taught In
Fall 2010
Learning Resource Types
assignment Presentation Assignments
assignment Written Assignments