Readings

Textbooks

Required Textbook

[Turner] = Turner, James E. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection. 3rd ed. Wiley-VCH, 2007. ISBN: 9783527406067.

Additional Book

[Yip] = Yip, Sidney. Nuclear Radiation Interactions. World Scientific Publishing Company, 2014. ISBN: 9789814368070.

LEC # TOPICS READINGS  
1 Radiation History to the Present—Understanding the Discovery of the Neutron

Chadwick, J. “Possible Existence of a Neutron.” (PDF) Nature 129 (1932): 312.

———. “The Existence of a Neutron.” Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 136, no. 830 (1932): 692.

 
2 Radiation Utilizing Technology [Yip] pp. 1–11.  
3 Nuclear Mass and Stability, Nuclear Reactions and Notation, Introduction to Cross Section

[Turner] Chapter 3: The Nucleus and Nuclear Radiation, pp. 55–61. 
A gentle introduction to nuclear mass and binding energy

[Yip] Chapter 4: Stability of Nuclei, pp. 51–58. 
Considerably more detail and derivations

 
4 Binding Energy, the Semi-Empirical Liquid Drop Nuclear Model, and Mass Parabolas [Yip] Chapter 4: Stability of Nuclei, pp. 59–64. 
Short but useful; please read fully and carefully
 
5 Mass Parabolas Continued, Stability, and Half-Life Oganessian, Y. and K. Rykaczewski. “A Beachhead on the Island of Stability.” Physics Today 68, no. 8 (2015): 32. 
A fascinating article from Physics Today about superheavy elements
 
6 The Q-Equation—The Most General Nuclear Reaction [No reading assigned]  
7 Q-Equation Continued and Examples [No reading assigned]  
8 Radioactive Decay—Modes, Energetics, and Trends [Turner] Sections 3.3 to 3.8, pp 62–79.  
9 Radioactive Decay Continued [Turner] Sections 4.1 to 4.3, pp. 83–88.  
10 Radioactive Decay Continued Wotiz, R. “Ionization Detectors.” (PDF) Circuit Cellar 256 (2011): 60–65.. 
A simple explanation of the math & physics of ionization smoke detectors
 
11 Radioactivity and Series Radioactive Decays [Turner] Section 4.4, pp. 89–95.  
12 Numerical Examples of Activity, Half-Life, and Series Decay [Turner] Chapter 11, pp. 303–35. 
A complete derivation of statistics from Binomial to Poisson to Normal, as it applies to radiation counting uncertainty
 
13 Practical Radiation Counting Experiments—Solid Angle, Count Rates, Uncertainty, and Hands-On Gamma Counting and Nuclear Activation Analysis [No reading assigned]  
14 Photon Interactions with Matter I—Interaction Methods and Gamma Spectral Identification

[Turner] Chapter 8, pp. 173–201.

[Yip] pp. 216–22.

 
15 Photon Interaction with Matter II—More Details, Shielding Calculations [No reading assigned]  
16 Nuclear Reactor Construction and Operation [No reading assigned]  
17 Ion-Nuclear Interactions I—Scattering and Stopping Power Derivation, Ion Range [Turner] Chapter 6, pp. 139–54.  
18 Ion-Nuclear Interactions II—Bremsstrahlung, X-Ray Spectra, Cross Sections [Turner] Chapter 5, pp. 109–34.  
19 Uses of Photon and Ion Nuclear Interactions—Characterization Techniques

[Turner] Chapter 9, pp. 209–28. 
A slightly simpler explanation

[Yip] Chapter 12, pp. 241–57. 
A more difficult, more thorough explanation

 
20 How Nuclear Energy Works [No reading assigned]  
21 Neutron Transport

[Turner] Sections 9.9–9.11, pp. 228–35. 
A simpler explanation of some unique neutron reactions

[Yip] Sections 9.2–9.3, pp. 184–220. 
Quite thorough, with more derivation of energetics

 
22 Simplifying Neutron Transport to Neutron Diffusion [No reading assigned]  
23 Solving the Neutron Diffusion Equation, and Criticality Relations

Excerpt from Duderstadt, J. J., and L. J. Hamilton. Nuclear Reactor Analysis. Wiley, 1976, pp. 111–13 and 120–29. ISBN: 9780471223634. 
Conceptual derivation of the neutron transport equation, balancing gains and losses

[Turner] Chapter 3, pp. 45 and 57–61. 
A simplification of the NTE to a one-variable ODE for a bare, homogeneous reactor

 
24 Transients, Feedback, and Time-Dependent Neutronics

[Turner] Chapter 15, pp. 475–510.

[Turner] Section 11.12, pp. 337–42. 
Dead time, energy resolution, paralyzability

 
25 Review of All Nuclear Interactions and Problem Set 7 Help GenIV International Forum / OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. “Technology Roadmap Update for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.” (PDF - 2.8MB) January 2014. 
Skim for details about the advanced fission reactors being researched
 
26 Chernobyl—How It Happened [No reading assigned]  
27 Nuclear Materials—Radiation Damage and Effects in Matter [No reading assigned]  
28 Chernobyl Trip Report by Jake Hecla [No reading assigned]  
29 Nuclear Materials Science Continued [Turner] Chapter 12, pp. 361–86.  
30 Radiation Dose, Dosimetry, and Background Radiation

[Turner] Sections 4.5–4.6, pp. 96–102.

Ackermann, M., et al. “Detection of the Characteristic Pion-Decay Signature in Supernova Remnants.” Science 339, no. 6121 (2013): 807–11. 
A recent breakthrough paper, changing the theory of the origin of cosmic rays

 
31 Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine, Where One Finds Ionizing Radiation (Background and Other Sources) [No reading assigned]  
32 Chemical and Biological Effects of Radiation, Smelling Nuclear Bullshit [Turner] Sections 13.1–13.8, pp 399–421.  
33 Long-Term Biological Effects of Radiation, Statistics, Radiation Risk

[Turner] Sections 13.9–13.15, pp. 421–41.

Valentin, J., ed. “Low-dose Extrapolation of Radiation-related Cancer Risk.” Annals of the International Commission of Radiological Protection 35, no. 4 (2005): 1–141.

ICRP-99 Recommendations on Radiation Protection: Read pp. 13–46 for data and explanations about quantifying radiation risk

Prekeges, J. L. “Radiation Hormesis, or, Could All That Radiation Be Good for Us?Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 31, no. 1 (2003): 11–17. 
A quick survey of history and current knowledge (as of 2003) of different models of radiation exposure

Luckey, T. D. “Radiation Hormesis: The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly.” Dose-Response 4, no. 3 (2006): 169–90. 
A rather pointed criticsm of the LNT model

 
34 Radiation Hormesis

Moeller, D. W. “Radiation in Perspective.” HPS Newsletter, June 1998. p. 17. 
A concise ten-point summary of typical radiation doses incurred by the general public

Urbain, W. M. “General Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Foods” and “Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods.” Chapters 5 and 13 in Food Irradiation. Academic Press, 2012, pp. 118–23 and 269–75. ISBN: 9780124315853. [Preview with Google Books]

“What’s Wrong With Food Irradiation?” (PDF) Organic Consumers Association, 2001. 
Using your new knowledge from 22.01, point out and explain all the scientific mistakes in this article. Include primary sources as backup to your arguments.

Mercola, J. M. “Never Buy Meat, Potatoes or Herbs With ‘Treated by Radiation’ on the Label.” 2011. 
This article contains references to primary sources. Come to class with a list of which (if any) reasons for opposing food irradiation are incorrect, and explain why.

 
35 Food Irradiation and Its Safety World Health Organization. “High-Dose Irradiation: Wholesomeness of Food Irradiated With Doses Above 10kGy.” (PDF - 4.2MB) Report of Joint FAO / IAEA / WHO Study Group. 1999.  

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Fall 2016
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