24.901 | Fall 2010 | Undergraduate, Graduate
Language and Its Structure I: Phonology


Required Texts

[PGG] = Kenstowicz, Michael. Phonology in Generative Grammar. Blackwell, 1994. ISBN: 9781557864260.

[CIP] = Ladefoged, Peter. A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed. Thomson, 2005. ISBN: 9781413006889.

Reading by Session

1 Introduction, course overview, vowels: articulatory description and transcription

[PGG], pp. 1-11

[CIP], chapter 1

2-3 Consonants: articulatory description and transcription; distinctive features

[PGG], chapter 1

[CIP], chapter 2

4 Phonological versus phonetic representations [PGG], chapter 2
5 Alternations and derivations I [PGG] chapter 3, pp. 89-114
6 Alternations and derivations II  
7 Constraints  
8 Phonetics I: acoustics of vowels, using Praat [CIP], chapter 8
9 Phonetics II: acoustics of consonants

[CIP], chapter 6

Lisker, Leigh, and Arthur S. Abramson. “A Cross-language Study of Voicing in Initial Stops: Acoustical Measurements.” Word 20, no. 3 (1964): 384-422. (PDF - 1.8MB)

10 Phonetics III: suprasegmentals [CIP], chapter 10
11 Feature geometry [PGG], chapter 4, section 3 (pp. 145-168)
12 Course review  
13 Sociolinguistic variables Labov, William. “The Social Stratification of (r) in New York City Department Stores.” Chapter 2 in Sociolinguistic Patterns. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1973. ISBN: 9780812210521.
14 American English dialects  
15 Tone I: African languages [PGG], chapter 7, pp. 310-331
16 Tone II: Asian languages [PGG], chapter 7, pp. 376-384
17 Tone III: intonation and phrasing Ladd, Robert. “Cross-language Comparison of Intonation.” Chapter 4 in Intonational Phonology. Cambridge University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780521475754.
18 Syllables I: structure and syllabification [PGG], chapter 6, pp. 250-269
19 Syllables II: sonority [PGG], chapter 6, pp. 269-285
20 Stress I: prominence [PGG], chapter 10, pp. 548-565
21 Stress II: rhythm  
22 Stress III: weight Kenstowicz, Michael. “Peak Prominence Stress Systems and Optimality Theory.” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Linguistics at Chosun University. Gwangju, Korea, November 26, 1993.
23 Prosodic morphology: reduplication and truncation [PGG], pp. 622-646
24 Loanword phonology

Silverman, Daniel. “Multiple Scansions in Loanword Phonology: Evidence from Cantonese.” Phonology 9, no. 2 (1992): 289-328.

Yip, Moira. “The Symbiosis Between Perception and Grammar in Loanword Phonology.” Lingua 116 (2006): 950-975.

25 Review  

Additional Readings

Below is a list of additional useful textbooks, reference books, and journals arranged by topic.


Kenstowicz, Michael. Phonology in Generative Grammar. Blackwell, 1994. ISBN: 9781557864260.

Gussenhoven, Carlos, and Haike Jacobs. Understanding Phonology. Hodder Arnold, 1998. ISBN: 9780340692189.

Odden, David. Introducing Phonology. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780521534048.

Hayes, Bruce. Introductory Phonology. Blackwell, 2008. ISBN: 9781405184113.

Goldsmith, John. Handbook of Phonological Theory. Blackwell, 1995. ISBN: 9780631201267.

De Lacy, Paul. Cambridge Handbook of Phonology. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780521848794.


Natural Language and Linguistic Theory.


Ladefoged, Peter. A Course in Phonetics. 5th ed. Thomson, 2005. ISBN: 9781413006889.

Reetz, Henning, and Allard Jongman. Phonetics: Transcription, Production, Acoustics and Perception. Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN: 9780631232261.

Ladefoged, Peter, and Ian Maddieson. Sounds of the World’s Languages. Blackwell, 1996. ISBN: 9780631198154.

Buy at MIT Press Stevens, Kenneth. Acoustic Phonetics. MIT Press, 2000. ISBN-13: 9780262692502.

Journal of Phonetics.

Journal of the International Phonetic Association.

Course Info
As Taught In
Fall 2010
Learning Resource Types
notes Lecture Notes