4.273 | Fall 2004 | Graduate

Introduction to Design Inquiry


01a Metaphors We Design and Compute By

Lakoff, G. “The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor.” In Metaphor and Thought. Edited by A. Ortony. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, November 26, 1993, pp. 202-251. ISBN: 0521405610.

Coyne, R. “Computers, Metaphors, and Change.” Arq 1 (1995): 62-67.

Travers, M. D. “Metaphors and Models for Computation.” Chapter 2 in Programming with Agents: New Metaphors for Thinking about Computation. PhD dissertation, Media Arts and Sciences, MIT, 1996.
(you can skim section 2.2.3)

Optional Readings

Agre, P. E. Computation and Human Experience (Learning in Doing: Social, Cognitive and Computational Perspectives). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1997. ISBN: 0521386039. (go through chapter 2 “Metaphor in practice” and chapter 3 “Machinery and dynamics” excerpt)

01b Metaphors We Design and Compute By (cont.)  
02a Silent Game

Habraken, N. J., M. Gross, et al. Concept Design Games. Book One: Developing. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1987, pp. 1-1 - 1-7, 2-1 - 2-15, 3-1 - 3-11.

———. Concept Design Games. Book Two: Playing. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1987, pp. 0-1 - 0-5, 2-1 - 2-10, 3-1 - 3-8.

Reddy, M. J. “The Conduit Metaphor: A Case of Frame Conflict in Our Language about Language.” In Metaphor and Thought. Edited by A. Ortony (1993). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979, pp. 165-201.

Wittgenstein, L. Preliminary Studies for the “Philosophical Investigations”: Generally Known as the Blue and Brown Books. New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1958, pp. vii-xvi, 77-89.

02b Silent Game (cont.)  
03a Design, Rules, and Cognition

Buy at MIT Press Mitchell, William J. The Logic of Architecture. Design, Computation and Cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990, pp. 131-181. ISBN: 9780262631167.

Nagakura, T. “Shape Recognition and Transformation” In Electronic Design Studio. Edited by Malcolm McCullough, William J. Mitchell, and Patrick Purcell. Cambridge: MIT Press, September 10, 1990, pp. 149-170. ISBN: 0262132540.

03b Design, Rules, and Cognition (cont.)  
03c Design, Practice, Education, Grammars

Schön, Donald A. Chapters 1-3 in Educating the Reflective Practitioner. Josey-Bass, February 1, 1990, pp. 1-79. ISBN: 1555422209.

Knight, T. W. “Shape Grammars in Education and Practice: History and Prospects.” International Journal of Design Computing 2, 1999-2000.

04 Evolutionary Computation: Algorithms Red in Tooth and Claw

Read in the Order Given Below

Schoenauer, M., and Z. Michalewicz. “Evolutionary Computation” Control and Cybernetics. Special Issue on Evolutionary Computation 26, no. 3 (1997): 307-338. [A good overview of the different branches of evolutionary computation. Skim the technical parts.]

O’Reilly, U., et. al. “Agent-GP: Agent-Based Genetic Programming for Design.” Paper Presented at the 2001 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference [GECCO]. July 7-11, 2001, San Francisco, California, USA.

Sims, K. “Evolving Virtual Creatures.” Computer Graphics. Annual Conference Series, (SIGGRAPH ‘94 Proceedings), (1994): 15-22. (PDF)

Optional Readings

Koza, J. R. “Survey of Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming.” In Proceedings of 1995 WESCON Conference. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. 1995, pp. 589-594.

05a Visual Calculating

Buy at MIT Press Minsky, M. The Society of Mind. New York: Touchstone, 1985, pp. 133-135. ISBN: 0671657135. [Read sections 13.1, 13.2, 13.3 (Reformulation, Boundaries, Seeing and Believing)]

Stiny, G. “New Ways to Look at Things.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. Anniversary Issue, 1998, pp. 68-75.

Knight, T. W. “Shape Grammars.” In Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. Anniversary Issue, 1998, pp. 86-91.

Excerpt from Cope, D. “Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Creativity.” In Virtual Music. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001, pp. 323-324.

Excerpt from Bamberger, J. S. “Developing Musical Structures: A Reflective Practicum.” MIT Faculty Newsletter 17, no. 1 (Sept/Oct, 2004). [Comments about the music fundamentals course Bamberger has taught at MIT for many years.]

05b Visual Calculating (cont.)  
06a Digital Fabricating

Mitchell, W. J. “Roll Over Euclid: How Frank Gehry Designs Buildings.” In Frank Gehry, Architect. Edited by J. Fiona Ragheb. NY: Guggenheim Museum Publications, July 2003. ISBN: 0892072776.

Iovine, J. V. “Building a Bad Reputation.” New York Times, Sunday, August 8th, 2004.

Minsky, M. “Why People Think Computers Can’t.” AI Magazine 3, no. 4, (1982). [Reprinted in Technology Review, (Nov/Dec 1983), and in The Computer Culture, (Donnelly, Ed.) Associated University Presses, Cranbury NJ, 1985]

Purpose of Readings

NY article - The relationship between the construction industry and designers

Mitchell - Overall article on digital fabrication.

Minsky - The idea of making intelligent machines

06b Digital Fabricating (cont.)  
07a Design Tooling

Buy at MIT Press Abelson, H. and G. Sussman. Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780262510875. [Read forewords and excerpts.]

Alexander, C. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 73-95. ISBN: 0674627512.

Minsky, M. The Society of Mind. New York: Touchstone, 1985. ISBN: 0671657135. [Read sections 2.5, 13.3-5, 14.1, 15.10-11]

Maeda, J. Creative Code: Aesthetics + Computation. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004, pp. 112-115. ISBN: 0500285179.

 Aranda, B. and C Lasch. Pamphlet Architecture 22: Tooling. Princeton Architectural Press, 2005. ISBN: 9781568985473.

Optional Readings

Hung, C.K. and J. Frazer and T.M. Xi. Interactive Evolutionary Design in a Hierarchical Way. (PDF)

Jefferson, D. et al. The Genesys System: Evolution as a Theme in Artificial Life.

Sims, K. “Evolving Virtual Creatures.” Computer Graphics. Annual Conference Series, (SIGGRAPH ‘94 Proceedings), (1994): 15-22. (PDF)

Buy at MIT Press ———. “Evolving 3D Morphology and Behavior by Competition.” In Artificial Life IV Proceedings . Edited by R. Brooks and P. Maes. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994, pp. 28-39. ISBN: 9780262521901.

07b Design Tooling (cont.)  
08 Your Design Metaphor  

Course Info

As Taught In
Fall 2004