6.805 | Fall 2005 | Undergraduate

Ethics and the Law on the Electronic Frontier


Selected Items on Clipper -- 1994

There was a tremendous amount published during 1994 on the Escrowed Encryption Standard (Clipper) and U.S. export controls on cryptography. Here are some items culled from the Net, in chronological order. Even looking through the titles of this chronology gives an overview of the interplay between politics, publicity, and technical argument in U.S. policy making. Remember that the Clipper debate is intertwined with debate over U.S. export control (the failed Cantwell Amendment) and the Digital Telephony bill. The articles here show the evolution of the Clipper controversy during 1994.

  • Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) announcement of campaign against Clipper." February 7, 1994.
  • February 9, 1994. Dorothy Denning’s rebuttal to CPSR.
  • Gore Indicates Administration’s Position is ‘Not Locked in Stone’. From New York Unix 4, no. 3. February 11, 1994.
  • Markoff, John. “Who Keeps The Keys To Cyberspace.” New York Times , February 12, 1994. (Article on Clipper controversy.)
  • Safire, William. “Sink the Clipper.” New York Times , February 13, 1994.
  • Denning, Dorothy “Encryption and Law Enforcement.” February 21, 1994.
  • PRIVACY Forum Digest 03, no. 05 (February 27, 1994). This issue of Privacy forum contains some excellent comments on Clipper, including a reprint of Dorothy Denning’s pro-Clipper article in Newsday (February 22) and a rebuttal (February 25) by Ron Rivest.
  • Godwin, Mike. “A Chip Over My Shoulder: The Problems With Clipper” Internet World (Column for July 1994 issue) (March 1994).
  • Bidzos, Jim. “Some thoughts on clipper, nsa, and one key escrow alternative.” March 5, 1994.
  • March 10, 1994. Time Online Odeon. Debate on Clipper between Dorothy Denning and John-Perry Barlow. Philip Elmer-Dewitt, moderator.
  • Elmer-Dewitt, Philip. “Who Should Keep the Keys?” Time Magazine , March 14, 1994.
  • Sussman, Vic. “Decoding the Electronic Future.” U.S. News and World Report . March 14, 1994.
  • Davis, Bob. “Clipper Chip is your friend, NSA contends.” Wall Street Journal (March 22, 1994).
  • April 7, 1994. MacNeil-Lehrer Report segment on Clipper.
  • May 4, 1994. Summary of Congressional Hearings before The Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Technology and the Law and the House Science, Space and Technology Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation. The full testimony can be found in the documents listed at the end of the summary, all available in the EFF Clipper archive.
  • “Administration’s crypto plan may have patent problems: MIT professor says he deserves royalties.” June 1, 1994.
  • Meeks, Brock. “Jacking in from the SNAFU Port (Clipper Snafu update)” June 2, 1994.
  • “Scientist Finds Flaw In Code Technology.” New York Times, June 2, 1994.
  • “More Patent Problems For Clipper.” June 3, 1994.
  • “Clipper Substitutes Suggested.” San Jose Mercury News, June 7, 1994.
  • June 11, 1994. NIST Settles with Micali.
  • “A Closer Look On Wiretapping.” New York Times, Editorial, June 12, 1994.
  • June 15, 1994. CNN Report - Larry King: Clipper Chip.
  • July 14, 1994. New Clipper Legislative Proposal from House Science Committee.
  • July 20, 1994, Letter from Al Gore to Maria Cantwell (PDF).
  • Markoff, John. “Administration Reverses Itself On Wiretapping Technology.” New York Times, July 20, 1994.
  • July 21, 1994, Statement of Senator Patrick Leahy on Vice President Gore’s Clipper Chip letter (PDF).
  • July 22, 1994. EFF Analysis of Vice-President Gore’s Letter on Cryptography Policy.
  • July 23, 1994. Remarks by Ron Rivest on Government Crypto Policy.
  • Bunker, Ted. “Is it 1984?” LAN Magazine, August 1994.
  • August 8, 1994. Gore Letter and Software Key Escrow (Tim May).
  • Corcoran, Elizabeth. “Delay urged on encryption technologies.” Washington Post, September 23, 1994.
  • October 6, 1994, HR 5199: A bill to provide for the establishment and management of voluntary encryption standards (PDF).
  • October 6, 1994, Rep. Brown’s comments upon introducing HR 5199 (PDF).
  • “Business Group Gets Specific On Encryption.” October 11, 1994.
  • Meeks, Brock. “Jacking in from the ‘Sooner or Later’ Port.” October 20, 1994.