9.22J | Fall 2006 | Undergraduate
A Clinical Approach to the Human Brain

Readings

Primary Text

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2004. ISBN: 9780878937257.

Articles

Reading of the abstracts is often sufficient to gain a general understanding of the results and significance of the article. The introduction of the articles usually provide helpful background information which makes the article more understandable. The figures in many of the articles will be discussed when they show functional brain imaging. Since the articles often have technical information which requires specialized knowledge and experience we will not be routinely reading articles cited in the syllabus in their entirety. We will discuss those parts of the article which should be read to prepare for class discussion.

Optional Texts

Kandell, Eric, James Schwartz, and Thomas Jessell. Principles of Neural Science. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN: 9780878937257.

Livingstone, Margaret. Vision and Art: The Biology of Seeing. New York, NY: Abrams, 2002. ISBN: 9780810904064.

 Matthews, Paul, and Jeffrey McQuain. The Bard on the Brain: Understanding the Mind through the Art of Shakespeare and the Science of Brain Imaging. New York, NY: Dana Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780972383028.

 Zeki, Semir. Inner Vision: An Exploration of Art and the Brain. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780198505198.

 Sacks, Oliver. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat: And Other Clinical Tales. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1998. ISBN: 9780198505198.

 Zeman, Adam. Consciousness: A User’s Guide. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780300104974.

 Damasio, Antonio. Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace, 2003. ISBN: 9780156028714.

SES # TOPICS READINGS
1 Brain Anatomy and Imaging

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 1-28.

2 Cells and Brain Imaging

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 1-12, 31-46, and 63-67.

3 Synaptic Potentials

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 1-12, 31-46, 63-67, 96-127, and 129-147.

Optional Reading

Sacks, Oliver. “The Disembodied Lady,” “The Man Who Fell Out of Bed,” “Hands,” “Phantoms,” “On the Level,” and “Eyes Right!” In The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. pp. 43-79.

4

fMRI of the Human Brain

Professor John Gabrieli, MIT

Required Reading

Brewer, James B., Zuo Zhao, John E. Desmond, Gary H. Glover, and John D. E. Gabrieli. “Making Memories: Brain Activity that Predicts How Well Visual Experience Will Be Remembered.” Science 281, no. 5380 (1998): 1185-1187.

Turhan, Canli, Zuo Zhao, James Brewer, John D. E. Gabrieli, and Larry Cahill. “Event-related Activation in the Human Amygdala Associates with Later Memory for Individual Emotional Experience.” Journal of Neuroscience 20 (2000): 1-5.

Turhan, Canli, Heidi Sivers, Susan L. Whitfield, Ian H. Gotlib, and John D. E. Gabrieli. “Amygdala Response to Happy Faces as a Function of Extraversion.” Science 296, no. 5576 (2002): 2191.

Optional Reading

DeCharms, R. Christopher, Fumiko Maeda, Gary H. Glover, David Ludlow, John M. Pauly, Deepak Soneji, John D. E. Gabrieli, and Sean C. Mackey. “Control over Brain Activation and Pain Learned by Using Real-time Functional MRI.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, no. 5 (2005): 18626-18631.

Poldrack, Russell A., John E. Desmond, Gary H. Glover, and John D. E. Gabrieli. “The Neural Basis of Visual Skill Learning: An FMRI Study of Mirror Reading.” Cerebral Cortex 8 (1998): 1-10.

Heeger, David J., and David Ress. “What Does FMRI Tell Us about Neuronal Activity?” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3 (2002): 142-141.

5 Seeing and Reading Others

Required Reading

Adolphs, Ralph. “Neural Systems for Recognizing Emotion.” Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12, no. 2 (2002): 169-177.

Sanfey, Alan G., James K. Rilling, Jessica A. Aronson, Leigh E. Nystrom, and Jonathan D. Cohen. “The Neural Basis of Economic Decision-making in the Ultimatum Game.” Science 300, no. 5626 (2003): 1765-1758.

Adolphs, Ralph, Hanna Damasio, Daniel Tranel, Greg Cooper, and Antonio R. Damasio. “A Role for Somatosensory Cortices in the Visual Recognition of Emotion as Revealed by Three-dimensional Lesion Mapping.” Journal of Neuroscience 20, no. 7 (2000): 2683-2690.

Iacoboni, Marco, Roger P. Woods, Marcel Brass, Harold Bekkering, John C. Mazziotta, and Giacomo Rizzolatti. “Cortical Mechanisms of Human Imitation.” Science 286, no. 5449 (1999): 2526-2528.

Optional Reading

Camerer, Colin F. “Psychology and Economics: Strategizing in the Brain.” Science 300, no. 5626 (2003): 1673-1675.

Gallese, Vittorio, and Alvin Goldman. “Mirror Neurons and the Simulation Theory of Mind-reading.” Trends in Cognitive Science 2, no. 12 (1998): 493-501.

6 Cognitive Enhancement through Neuropharmacology

Required Reading

Knecht, Stefan, Caterina Breitenstein, Stefan Bushuven, Stefanie Wailke, Sandra Kamping, Agnes Floel, Pienie Zwitserlood, and E. Bernd Ringelstein. “Levodopa: Faster and Better Word Learning in Normal Humans.” Annals of Neurology 56, no. 1 (2004): 20-26.

Butefisch, Cathrin M., Benjamin C. Davis, Lurny Sawaki, Daniel Waldvogel, Joseph Classen, Leonid Kopylev, and Leonardo G. Cohen. “Modulation of Use-dependent Plasticity by D-amphetamine.” Annals of Neurology 51, no. 1 (2001): 59-68.

Hall, Stephen S. “The Quest for a Smart Pill.” Scientific American 289, no. 33 (2003): 36-45.

Caplan, Arthur. “Is Better Best?” Scientific American 289, no. 33 (2003): 104.

Yesavage, J. A., M. S. Mumenthaler, J. L. Taylor, L. Friedman, R. O’Hara, J. Sheikh, J. Tinklenberg, and P. J. Whitehouse. “Donepezil and Flight Simulator Performance: Effects on Retention of Complex Skills.” Neurology 59 (2002): 125.

Optional Reading

Gron, Georg, Matthias Kirstein, Axel Thielscher, Matthias W. Riepe, and Manfred Spitzer. “Cholinergic Enhancement of Episodic Memory in Healthy Young Adults.” Psychopharmacology 182, no. 1 (2005): 170-179.

Santarelli, Luca, et al. “Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants.” Science 301, no. 5634 (2003): 805-809.

D’Sa, Carrol, and Ronald S. Duman. “Antidepressants and Neuroplasticity.” Bipolar Disorders 4, no. 3 (2002): 183-194.

Floel, Agnes, et al. “Dopaminergic Influences on Formation of a Motor Memory.” Annals of Neurology 58, no. 1 (2005): 121-130.

7 Oxytocin and Trust, Antidepressants and Neurogenesis

Required Reading

Damasio, Antonio. “Human Behaviour: Brain Trust.” Nature 435 (2005): 571-572.

Kosfeld, Michael, Markus Heinrichs, Paul J. Zak, Urs Fischbacher, and Ernst Fehr. “Oxytocin Increases Trust in Humans.” Nature 435 (2005): 673-676.

Harmer, Catherine J., Nicholas C. Shelley, Philip J. Cowen, and Guy M. Goodwin. “Increased Positive versus Negative Affective Perception and Memory in Healthy Volunteers Following Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition.” American Journal of Psychiatry 161 (2004): 1256-1263.

Santarelli, Luca, et al. “Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants.” Science 301, no. 5634 (2003): 805-809.

Vogel, Gretchen. “Depression Drugs’ Powers May Rest on New Neurons.” Science 301, no. 5634 (2003): 757.

Eriksson, Peter S., et al. “Neurogenesis in the Adult Human Hippocampus.” Nature Medicine 4 (1998): 1313-1317.

Wilson, Robert S., et al. “Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease.” Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 6 (2002): 742-748.

Ball, Karlene, et al. “Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions with Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 288, no. 18 (2002): 2271-2281.

Optional Reading

Miller, Greg. “Economic Game Shows How the Brain Builds Trust.” Science 308, no. 5718 (2005): 36.

King-Casas, Brooks, et al. “Getting to Know You: Reputation and Trust in a Two-person Economic Exchange.” Science 308, no. 5718 (2005): 78-83.

8 Neurogenesis: Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks

Required Reading

Shors, Tracey J., et al. “Neurogenesis in the Adult Is Involved in the Formation of Trace Memories.” Nature 410 (2001): 372-376.

Drapeau, Elodie, et al. “Spatial Memory Performances of Aged Rats in the Water Maze Predict Levels of Hippocampal Neurogenesis.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, no. 24 (2003): 14385-14390.

Gould, Elizabeth, Anna Beylin, Patima Tanapat, Alison Reeves, and Tracey J. Shors. “Learning Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Formation.” Nature Neuroscience 2 (1999): 260-265.

Verghese, Joe, et al. “Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly.” New England Journal of Medicine 348, no. 25 (2003): 2508-2516.

Optional Reading

Kempermann, Gerd, and Fred H. Gage. “New Nerve Cells for the Adult Brain.” Scientific American 280, no. 5 (1999): 48-53.

Gage, Fred H. “Brain, Repair Yourself.” Scientific American 289, no. 3 (2003): 47-54.

Coyle, Joseph T. “Use It or Lose It - Do Effortful Mental Activities Protect against Dementia?” New England Journal of Medicine 348, no. 25 (2003): 2489-2490.

Van Praag, Henriette, Gerd Kempermann, and Fred H. Gage. “Running Increases Cell Proliferation and Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus.” Nature Neuroscience 2 (1999): 266-270.

Van Praag, Henriette, Brian R. Christie, Terrence J. Sejnowski, and Fred H. Gage. “Running Enhances Neurogenesis, Learning, and Long-term Potentiation in Mice.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96, no. 23 (1999): 13427-13431.

Greenough, William T., Neal J. Cohen, and Janice M. Juraska. “New Neurons in Old Brains: Learning to Survive?” Nature Neuroscience 2 (1999): 203-205.

D’Sa, Carrol and Ronald S. Duman. “Antidepressants and Neuroplasticity.” Bipolar Disorders 4, no. 3 (2002): 183-194.

Vogel, Gretchen. “Depression Drugs’ Powers May Rest on New Neurons.” Science 301, no. 5634 (2003): 757.

9 Test 1  
10 Critical Periods: Implications for Education

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 557-574.

Kim, Karl H. S., Norman R. Relkin, Kyoung-Min Lee, and Joy Hirsch. “Distinct Cortical Areas Associated with Native and Second Languages.” Nature 388 (1997): 171-174.

Christakis, Dimitri A., Frederick J. Zimmerman, David L. DiGiuseppe, and Carolyn A. McCarty. “Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children.” Pediatrics 113 (2004): 708-713.

Optional Reading

Penn, Anna A., and Carla J. Shatz. “Brain Waves and Brain Wiring: The Role of Endogenous and Sensory-driven Neural Activity in Development.” Pediatric Research 45, no. 4 (1999): 447-458.

Buffelli, Mario, et al. “Genetic Evidence that Relative Synaptic Efficacy Biases the Outcome of Synaptic Competition.” Nature 424 (2003): 430-434.

Thompson, Paul M., et al. “Genetic Influences on Brain Structure.” Nature Neuroscience 4, no. 12 (2001): 1-6.

Curtiss, Susan. Genie: A Psycholinguistic Study of a Modern-day “Wild Child”. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1977. ISBN: 9780121963507.

Kuhl, Patricia K., Karen A. Williams, Francisco Lacerda, Kenneth N. Stevens, and Bjorn Lindblom. “Linguistic Experience Alters Phonetic Perception in Infants by Six Months of Age.” Science 255, no. 5044 (1992): 606-608.

Gogtay, Nitin, et al. “Dynamic Mapping of Human Cortical Development during Childhood through Early Adulthood.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101, no. 21 (2004): 8174-8179.

11 Neuroplasticity in the Adult

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 402-12, 599-602.

Gaser, Christian, and Gottfriend Schlaug. “Gray Matter Differences between Musicians and Nonmusicians.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 999 (2003): 514-517.

Elbert, Thomas, Christo Pantev, Christian Wienbruch, Brigitte Rockstroh, and Edward Taub. “Increased Cortical Representation of the Fingers of the Left Hand in String Players.” Science 270, no. 5234 (1995): 305-307.

Holloway, Marguerite. “The Mutable Brain.” Scientific American 289, no. 3 (2003): 78-84.

Ball, Karlene. “Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions with Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 288, no. 18 (2002): 2271-2281.

Optional Reading

Wilson, Robert S., et al. “Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease.” Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 6 (2002): 742-748.

Verghese, Joe, et al. “Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly.” New England Journal of Medicine 348, no. 25 (2003): 2508-2516.

Coyle, Joseph T. “Use It or Lose It - Do Effortful Mental Activities Protect against Dementia?” New England Journal of Medicine 348, no. 25 (2003): 2489-2490.

D’Sa, Carrol, and Ronald S. Duman. “Antidepressants and Neuroplasticity.” Bipolar Disorders 4, no. 3 (2002): 183-194.

12 Language, Dyslexia and Universal Grammar

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 637-657.

Simos, P. G., et al. “Dyslexia-specific Brain Activation Profile Becomes Normal Following Successful Remedial Training.” Neurology 58 (2002): 1203-1213.

Shaywitz, Sally E., and Bennett A. Shaywitz. “Dyslexia (Specific Reading Disability).” Pediatrics in Review 24 (2003): 147-153.

Optional Reading

Simos, Panagiotis G., et al. “Brain Activation Profiles during the Early Stages of Reading Acquisition.” Journal of Child Neurology 17, no. 3 (2002): 159-163.

Sacks, Oliver. “The President’s Speech.” In The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. pp. 80-84.

Musso, Mariacristina, et al. “Broca’s Area and the Language Instinct.” Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 774-781.

Marcus, Gary F., Athena Vouloumanos, and Ivan A. Sag. “Does Broca’s Play by the Rules?” Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 651-652.

13 Visual System I

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 259-263, 278-281, and 619-623.

Phelps, Elizabeth A., et al. “Activation of the Left Amygdala to a Cognitive Representation of Fear.” Nature Neuroscience 4 (2001): 437-441.

Phillips, M. L., et al. “A Specific Neural Substrate for Perceiving Facial Expressions of Disgust.” Nature 389 (1997): 495-498.

Optional Reading

Sacks, Oliver. “Visions of Hildegard,” and “The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat.” In The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. pp. 166-70, 8-22.

14 Visual Neglect and Prosopagnosia

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 259-263, 278-281, and 619-623.

Barton, Jason J. S., Daniel Z. Press, Julian P. Keenan, and Margaret O’Connor. “Lesions of the Fusiform Face Area Impair Perception of Facial Configuration in Prosopagnosia.” Neurology 58 (2002): 71-78.

Bisiach, Edoardo, and Claudio Luzzatti. “Unilateral Neglect of Representational Space.” Cortex 14 (1978): 129-133.
A fascinating study of patients from Milan with injury to the right parietal lobe reveals that such patients are not aware of the left visual world. (It is illustrated and discussed in Kandel, Schwartz, Jessell, eds. Principles of Neural Science. pp. 398-9.)

Optional Reading

Husain, Masud, and Chris Rorden. “Non-spatially Lateralized Mechanisms in Hemispatial Neglect.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (2003): 26-36.

Fink, G. R., et al. “Where in the Brain Does Visual Attention Select the Forest and the Trees?” Nature 382 (1996): 626-628.

15 Rembrandt, Leonardo, Monet: How We See Them

Required Reading

Bisiach, Edoardo, and Claudio Luzzatti. “Unilateral Neglect of Representational Space.” Cortex 14 (1978): 129-133.

Wicker, Bruno, et al. “Both of Us Disgusted in My Insula: The Common Neural Basis of Seeing and Feeling Disgust.” Neuron 40, no. 3 (2003): 655-664.

Optional Reading

Sacks, Oliver. “The Disembodied Lady,” “The Man Who Fell Out of Bed,” “Hands,” “Phantoms,” “On the Level,” and “Eyes Right.” In The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. pp. 43-79

Livingstone, Margaret. Vision and Art: The Biology of Seeing.

Zeki, Semir. Inner Vision.

16 Sensory System and Pain

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 209-227.

Rainville, Pierre, Gary H. Duncan, Donald D. Price, Benoit Carrier, and M. Catherine Bushnell. “Pain Affect Encoded in Human Anterior Cingulate but Not Somatosensory Cortex.” Science 277, no. 5328 (1997): 968-971.

Ploghaus, Alexander, et al. “Dissociating Pain from Its Anticipation in the Human Brain.” Science 284, no. 5422 (1999): 1979-1981.

Optional Reading

Mogilner, Alon, et al. “Somatosensory Cortical Plasticity in Adult Humans Revealed by Magnetoencephalography.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90 (1993): 3593-3597.

Ramachandran, V. S. “Behavioral and Magnetoencephalographic Correlates of Plasticity in the Adult Human Brain.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90 (1993): 10413-10420.

Fink, G. R., et al. “Where in the Brain Does Visual Attention Select the Forest and the Trees?” Nature 382 (1996): 626-628.

Husain, Masud, and Chris Rorden. “Non-spatially Lateralized Mechanisms in Hemispatial Neglect.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (2003): 26-36.

17 Placebo, Empathy, and Theory of Mind

Required Reading

Holden, Constance. “Imaging Studies Show How Brain Thinks about Pain.” Science 303, no. 5661 (2004): 1121.

Wager, Tor D., et al. “Placebo-induced Changes in FMRI in the Anticipation and Experience of Pain.” Science 303, no. 5661 (2004): 1162-1167.

Singer, Tania, et al. “Empathy for Pain Involves the Affective but Not Sensory Components of Pain.” Science 303, no. 5661 (2004): 1157-1162.

Kosfeld, Michael, Markus Heinrichs, Paul J. Zak, Urs Fischbacher, and Ernst Fehr. “Oxytocin Increases Trust in Humans.” Nature 435 (2005): 673-676.

Optional Reading

Zubieta, Jon-Kar, et al. “Placebo Effects Mediated by Endogenous Opioid Activity on Mu-opioid Receptors.” Journal of Neuroscience 25, no. 34 (2005): 7754-7762.

Saxe, R., S. Carey, and N. Kanwisher. “Understanding Other Minds: Linking Developmental Psychology and Functional Neuroimaging.” Annual Review of Psychology 55 (2004): 87-124.

Carr, Laurie, Marco Iacoboni, Marie-Charlotte Dubeau, John C. Mazziotta, and Gian Luigi Lenzi. “Neural Mechanisms of Empathy in Humans: A Relay from Neural Systems for Imitation to Limbic Areas.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, no. 9 (2003): 5497-5502.

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience, pp. 388-391.

18 Test 2  
19 Emotions and Feelings: Romantic and Maternal Love

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience, pp. 687-710.

Bartels, Andreas, and Semir Zeki. “The Neural Basis of Romantic Love.” NeuroReport 11, no. 17 (2000): 3829-3834.

Nitschke, Jack B., et al. “Orbitofrontal Cortex Tracks Positive Mood in Mothers Viewing Pictures of Their Newborn Infants.” NeuroImage 21, no. 2 (2004): 583-592.

Dolan, R. J. “Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior.” Science 298, no. 5596 (2002): 1191-1194.

Optional Reading

Bartels, Andreas, and Semir Zeki. “The Neural Correlates of Maternal and Romantic Love.” NeuroImage 21, no. 3 (2004): 1155-1166.

Damasio, Antonio. Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace, 2003. ISBN: 9780156028714.

Cahill, Larry. “Sex-related Influences on the Neurobiology of Emotionally Influenced Memory.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 985 (2003): 163-173.

Kandell, Eric, et al. Principles of Neural Science, pp. 982-997.

Phelps, Elizabeth A., et al. “Activation of the Left Amygdala to a Cognitive Representation of Fear.” Nature Neuroscience 4 (2001): 437-441.

Thompson, Clive. “There’s a Sucker Born in Every Medial Prefrontal Cortex.” New York Times Magazine, October 26, 2003, pp. 54-57.

Mobbs, Dean, Michael D. Greicius, Eiman Abdel-Azim, Vinod Menon, and Allen L. Reiss. “Humor Modulates the Mesolimbic Reward Centers.” Neuron 40 (2003): 1041-1048.

Damasio, Antonio R., et al. “Subcortical and Cortical Brain Activity during the Feeling of Self-generated Emotions.” Nature Neuroscience 3 (2000): 1049-1056.

Amaral, David G. “The Primate Amygdala and the Neurobiology of Social Behavior Implications for Understanding Social Anxiety.” Biological Psychiatry 51 (2002): 11-17.

20 Neuroscience and Marketing: Hitting the “Sweet Spot”

Required Reading

Bartels, Andreas, and Semir Zeki. “The Neural Correlates of Maternal and Romantic Love.” NeuroImage 21, no. 3 (2004): 1155-1166.

McClure, Samuel M., et al. “Neural Correlates of Behavioral Preferences for Culturally Familiar Drinks.” Neuron 44 (2004): 379-387.

Erk, Susanne, Manfred Spitzer, Arthur P. Wunderlich, Lars Galley, and Henrik Walter. “Cultural Objects Modulate Reward Circuitry.” NeuroReport 13, no. 18 (2002): 2499-2503.

Editorial. “Brain Scam?” Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 683.

Thompson, Clive. “There’s a Sucker Born in Every Medial Prefrontal Cortex.” New York Times Magazine, October 26, 2003, 54-57.

Brammer, Michael. “Brain Scam?” Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 1015.

Optional Reading

Mobbs, Dean, Michael D. Greicius, Eiman Abdel-Azim, Vinod Menon, and Allen L. Reiss. “Humor Modulates the Mesolimbic Reward Centers.” Neuron 40 (2003): 1041-1048.

Greene, Joshua D., R. Brian Sommerville, Leigh E. Nystrom, John M. Darley, and Jonathan D. Cohen. “An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment.”  Science 293, no. 5537 (2001): 2105-2108.

Damasio, Antonio. Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace, 2003. ISBN: 9780156028714 .

21 Learning and Memory: The Case of HM

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 733-753.

Corkin, Suzanne, David G. Amaral, R. Gilberto Gonzales, Keith A. Johnson, and Bradley T. Hyman. “H.M.’s Medial Temporal Lobe Lesion: Findings from Magnetic Resonance Imaging.” Journal of Neuroscience 17, no. 10 (1997): 3964-3979.

Wagner, Ullrich, Steffen Gais, Hilde Haider, Rolf Verleger, and Jan Born. “Sleep Inspires Insight.” Nature 427 (2004): 352-355.

Optional Reading

Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M., et al. “Interfering with Theories of Sleep and Memory: Sleep, Declarative Memory, and Associative Interference.” Current Biology 16, no. 13 (2006): 1290-1294.

Cabeza, R., and L. Nyberg. “Imaging Cognition II: An Empirical Review of 275 PET and FMRI Studies.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12 (2000): 1-47.

Kandell, Eric, et al. Principles of Neural Science. pp. 122-146.

Siegel, Jerome M. “Why We Sleep.” Scientific American 289 (2003): 92.

22 Structure and Function of Brains with Superior Memory

Required Reading

Maguire, Eleanor A., Elizabeth R. Valentine, John M. Wilding, and Narinder Kapur. “Routes to Remembering: The Brains behind Superior Memory.” Nature Neuroscience 6 (2002): 90-95.

Maguire, Eleanor A., et al. “Navigation-related Structural Change in the Hippocampi of Taxi Drivers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97, no. 8 (2000): 4398-4403.

Dehaene, S., E. Spelke, P. Pinel, R. Stanescu, and S. Tsivkin. “Sources of Mathematical Thinking: Behavioral and Brain-imaging Evidence.” Science 284, no. 5416 (1999): 970-974.

Optional Reading

Johannes, Laura. “Finding Alzheimer’s Early; Doctors Divided over the Need for an Expensive PET Scan in Diagnosis of Brain Disease.” Wall Street Journal, October 16, 2003, B1.

Kandell, Eric, et al. Principles of Neural Science. pp. 122-146.

McMahon, Pamela M., Sally S. Araki, Eileen A. Sandberg, Peter J. Neumann, and G. Scott Gazelle. “Cost Effectiveness of PET in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease.” Radiology 228 (2003): 515-522.

Rundle, Rhonda L. “MRI Is Used to Predict Memory Loss.” Wall Street Journal, November 25, 2003, D4.

Rusinek, Henry, et al. “Regional Brain Atrophy Rate Predicts Future Cognitive Decline: 6-year Longitudinal MR Imaging Study of Normal Aging.” Radiology 229 (2003): 691-696.

Petrella, Jeffrey R., R. Edward Coleman, and P. Murali Doraiswamy. “Neuroimaging and Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease: A Look to the Future.” Radiology 226 (2003): 315-336.

Rosen, Allyson C., Arun L. W. Bokde, Allison Pearl, and Jerome A. Yesavage. “Ethical and Practical Issues in Applying Functional Imaging to the Clinical Management of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Brain and Cognition 50, no. 3 (2002): 498-519.

23 How Emotion and Antidepressants Affect Memory

Required Reading

Van Stegeren, Anda H., et al. “Noradrenaline Mediates Amygdala Activation in Men and Women during Encoding of Emotional Material.” NeuroImage 24, no. 3 (2005): 898-909.

Pesenti, Mauro, et al. “Mental Calculation in a Prodigy Is Sustained by Right Prefrontal and Medial Temporal Areas.” Nature Neuroscience 4 (2001): 103-107.

Harmer, Catherine J., Nicholas C. Shelley, Philip J. Cowen, and Guy M. Goodwin. “Increased Positive versus Negative Affective Perception and Memory in Healthy Volunteers Following Selective Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition.” American Journal of Psychiatry 161 (2004): 1256-1263.

24 Depression, Anxiety and Psychosis

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience, pp. 704-705 (Box E), p. 148 (Box C), p. 625 (Box B).

Bejjani, Boulos-Paul, et al. “Transient Acute Depression Induced by High-frequency Deep-brain Stimulation.” New England Journal of Medicine 340, no. 19 (1999): 1476-1470.

Begley, Sharon. “New Hope for Battling Depression Relapses: Study Illuminates Why the Benefits of Therapy Are More Lasting Than Medication.” Wall Street Journal, January 6, 2004, D1.

Santarelli, Luca, et al. “Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants.” Science 301 (2003): 805-809.

Optional Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience, pp. 403 (Box B).

Kandell, Eric, et al. Principles of Neural Science, pp. 982-997.

D’Sa, Carroll, and Ronald S. Duman. “Antidepressants and Neuroplasticity.” Bipolar Disorders 4, no. 3 (2002): 183-194.

Amaral, David G. “The Primate Amygdala and the Neurobiology of Social Behavior Implications for Understanding Social Anxiety.” Biological Psychiatry 51 (2002): 11-17.

25 Vision, Memory and Feelings: Binding them Together

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 613-618, 623-636.

Nitschke, Jack B., et al. “Orbitofrontal Cortex Tracks Positive Mood in Mothers Viewing Pictures of Their Newborn Infants.” NeuroImage 21, no. 2 (2004): 583-592.

Santarelli, Luca, et al. “Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants.” Science 301 (2003): 805-809.

Optional Reading

Morris, J., et al. “A Different Neural Response in the Human Amygdala in Fearful and Happy Facial Expressions.” Nature 383, no. 81 (1996): 812-815.

Sacks, Oliver. “A Walking Grove,” and “Rebecca.” In The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. pp. 187-194, 178-186.

26 Music, Math and the Brain

Optional Reading

Pascual-Leone, Alvaro. “The Brain that Plays Music and Is Changed by It.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 930, no. 1 (2001): 315-329.

Gaser, Christian, and Gottfried Schlaug. “Gray Matter Differences between Musicians and Nonmusicians.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 999, no. 1 (2003): 514-517.

Zatorre, Robert J. “Music and the Brain.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 999, no. 1 (2003): 4-14.

Schlaug, Gottfried. “The Brain of Musicians: A Model for Functional and Structural Adaptation.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 930, no. 1 (2001): 281-299.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 930, June 2001. Issue devoted to this subject.

  Consciousness / Neuroeconomics

Consciousness, The Permanent Vegetative State, and Public Policy

Required Reading

Purves, Dale, et al. Neuroscience. pp. 603-622.

Optional Reading

Kandell, Eric, et al. Principles of Neural Science. pp. 1316-1319.

Charatan, Fred. “Governor Jeb Bush Intervenes in ‘Right to Die’ Case.” British Medical Journal 327 (2003): 949.

Zimmer, Carl. “What If There Is Something Going On in There?” New York Times Magazine, September 28, 2003, 52-56.

Schiff, Nicholas D., et al. “Residual Cerebral Activity and Behavioural Fragments Can Remain in the Persistently Vegetative Brain.” Brain 125, no. 6 (2002): 1210-1234.

Giacino, J. T., et al. “The Minimally Conscious State: Definition and Diagnostic Criteria.” Neurology 58, no. 3 (2002): 349-353.

Illes, Judy, and Thomas A. Raffin. “Neuroethics: An Emerging New Discipline in the Study of Brain and Cognition.” Brain and Cognition 50 (2002): 341-344.

Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Associaton. “Medical Futility in End-of-life Care.” Journal of the American Medical Association 281, no. 10 (1999): 937-941.

Cantor, Michael D., et al. “Do-not-resuscitate Orders and Medical Futility.” Archives of Internal Medicine 163 (2003): 2689-2694.

Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. “Practice Parameters: Assessment and Management of Patients in the Persistent Vegetative State.” Neurology 45, no. 5 (1995): 1015-1018.

Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. “Practice Parameters for Determining Brain Death in Adults.” Neurology 45, no. 5 (1995): 1012-1014.

The Multi-Society Task Force on PVS. “Medical Aspects of the Persistent Vegetative State (First of Two Parts).” New England Journal of Medicine 330, no. 21 (1994): 1499-1508.

———. “Medical Aspects of the Persistent Vegetative State (Second of Two Parts).” New England Journal of Medicine 330, no. 21 (1994): 1572-1579.

Neuroethics: Mapping the Field. 2002 Conference Proceedings, Dana Foundation.

Neuroeconomics

Required Reading

Camerer, Colin, George Lowenstein, and Drazen Prelec. “Neuroeconomics: How Neuroscience Can Inform Economics.” Journal of Economic Literature 43, no. 1 (2005): 9-64.

Adolphs, Ralph. “Neural Systems for Recognizing Emotion.” Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12, no. 2 (2002): 169-177.

Sanfey, Alan G., James K. Rilling, Jessica A. Aronson, Leigh E. Nystrom, and Jonathan D. Cohen. “The Neural Basis of Economic Decision-making in the Ultimatum Game.” Science 300, no. 5626 (2003): 1765-1758.

Optional Reading

Wagner, Ullrich, Steffen Gais, Hilde Haider, Rolf Verleger, and Jan Born. “Sleep Inspires Insight.” Nature 427 (2004): 352-355.

Adolphs, Ralph, Hanna Damasio, Daniel Tranel, Greg Cooper, and Antonio R. Damasio. “A Role for Somatosensory Cortices in the Visual Recognition of Emotion as Revealed by Three-dimensional Lesion Mapping.” Journal of Neuroscience 20, no. 7 (2000): 2683-2690.

Iacoboni, Marco, Roger P. Woods, Marcel Brass, Harold Bekkering, John C. Mazziotta, and Giacomo Rizzolatti. “Cortical Mechanisms of Human Imitation.” Science 286, no. 5449 (1999): 2526-2528.

Stickgold, R., J. A. Hobson, R. Fosse, and M. Fosse. “Sleep, Learning and Dreams: Off-line Memory Reprocessing.” Science 294, no. 5544 (2001): 1052-1057.

Bartels, Andreas, and Semir Zeki. “The Neural Basis of Romantic Love.” NeuroReport 11, no. 17 (2000): 3829-3834.

Holden, Constance. “Imaging Studies Show How Brain Thinks about Pain.” Science 303, no. 5661 (2004): 1121.

Santarelli, Luca, et al. “Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants.” Science 301 (2003): 805-809.

Simos, P. G., et al. “Dyslexia-specific Brain Activation Profile Becomes Normal Following Successful Remedial Training.” Neurology 58 (2002): 1203-1213.

Semir, Zeki. Inner Vision: An Exploration of Art and the Brain.

  Can Thinking Prevent Dementia?

Required Reading

Wilson, Robert S., et al. “Participation in Cognitively Stimulating Activities and Risk of Incident Alzheimer Disease.” Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 6 (2002): 742-748.

Verghese, Joe, et al. “Leisure Activities and the Risk of Dementia in the Elderly.” New England Journal of Medicine 348, no. 25 (2003): 2508-2516.

Ball, Karlene. “Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions with Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 288, no. 18 (2002): 2271-2281.

Coyle, Joseph T. “Use It or Lose It - Do Effortful Mental Activities Protect against Dementia?” New England Journal of Medicine 348, no. 25 (2003): 2489-2490.

Optional Reading

Cabeza, R., and L. Nyberg. “Imaging Cognition II: An Empirical Review of 275 PET and FMRI Studies.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12 (2000): 1-47.

Churchill, James D., et al. “Exercise, Experience and the Aging Brain.” Neurobiology of Aging 23 (2002): 941-955.