Additional Resources

Best Practices, Monitoring, and Evaluation

Howard, Guy. Water Supply Surveillance: A Reference Manual. WEDC, Loughborough University, 2002. ISBN: 9781843800040.

World Health Organization. “GLAAS 2012 report (PDF - 6.5MB).” World Health Organization, 2012. 

Centralized Wastewater Treatment and Septic Systems

World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. “A rural think tank Jal Manthan: Making sanitation work (English).” World Bank, 2002. 

World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. “A rural think tank Jal Manthan igniting change: Tackling the sanitation challenge (English).” World Bank, 2002. 

McCann, Bill. “The sanity of Ecosan.” Water21 (April 2005): 23–30.

Mara, Duncan. Low-Cost Urban Sanitation. John Wiley & Sons, 1996. ISBN: 9780471961635.

Green, Jennifer, Olivier de Weck, and Pablo Suarez. “Sustainable urban sanitation: Simulating a desludging service in Senegal (PDF).” Proceedings of POMS 23rd Annual Conference, 2011.

Winblad, U., and M. Simpson-Hébert. Ecological Sanitation. Stockholm Environment Institute, 2004. ISBN: 9188714985.

Parker, Denny, James Barnard, et al. “The future of chemically enhanced primary treatment: Evolution not revolution.” Water21 (2001): 49–56.

Harleman, Donald, and Susan Murcott. “An innovative approach to urban wastewater treatment in the developing world.” Water21 (June 2001).

Harleman, Donald, and Susan Murcott. “Rebuttal by Harleman and Murcott to Parker et al. discussion paper: ‘The future of chemically enhanced primary treatment: Evolution not revolution.’” Water21 (June 2001).

China’s Water Resources and Drinking Water Challenges

Shalizi, Zmarak. “Addressing China’s growing water shortages and associated social and environmental consequences (PDF).” The World Bank, 2006.

Wang, Can, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, et al. “Options for the future: Balancing urban water supply and demand in Beijing.” Water Policy 8, no. 2 (2006): 97–110.

Hao, Xiaodi. “A megacity held hostage: Beijing’s conflict between water and economy.” Water21 (2012): 39–42.

“Human development report 2006—Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis.” United Nations, 2006.

Jun, Ma. China’s Water Crisis. Translated by Nancy Yang Liu and Lawrence R. Sullivan. Eastbridge Books, 2004. ISBN: 9781910736685.

Cost of Wars in Iraq, Afghanistan vs Costs of WASH

Crawford, Neta, Catherine Lutz, et al. “The costs of war since 2001: Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan: Executive summary.” Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, 2011.

World Health Organization and UNICEF. Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Joint Monitoring Programme Update 2012. World Health Organization, 2017. ISBN: 9789241503297.

World Health Organization. “WHO global water, sanitation and hygiene: Annual report 2018.” World Health Organization, 2019. 

Diffusion of Ideas and Innovations

World Health Organization. “Combating waterborne disease at the household level (PDF - 6.4MB).” World Health Organization, 2007. 

Evidence Base for WASH

Prüss-Üstün, Annette, Carlos Corvalán, and World Health Organization. “Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease.” World Health Organization, 2006.

Cairncross, Sandy, Caroline Hunt, et al. “Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea.” International Journal of Epidemiology 39, no. 1 (2010): i193-i205. 

Clasen, Thomas, Kristof Bostoen, et al. “Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2010). 

Clasen, Thomas, Kelly Alexander, et al. “Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2006).

Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina, John Ehiri, et al. “Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2015).

The Goalkeepers report 2018.” Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2018.

The Goalkeepers report 2019: Examining inequality.” Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 2019.

Levels and trends in child mortality 2012.” United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2012.

Levels and trends in child mortality 2020.” United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2020.

Waddington, Hugh and Birte Snilstveit. “Effectiveness and sustainability of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions in combating diarrhoea.” Journal of Development Effectiveness 1, no. 3 (2009): 295–335.

Waddington, Hugh, Birte Snilstveit, Howard White, and Lorna Fewtrell. “Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to combat childhood diarrhoea in developing countries.” Synthetic Review 1 (2009). 

Barrett, M. A., and Steven A. Osofsky. “One Health: Interdependence of people, other species, and the planet.” In Jekel’s Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health. Katz David, et al. (eds.). Elsevier, 2013. Chapter 30 and supplement. ISBN: 9780323642019. 

Nelson, Deborah Imel. “Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 23, no. 3 (2003): 323–341. 

Food-Energy-Water Nexus

Rogers, Peter. “Water-energy NeXUS: Sustainable urbanization in the Greater Mekong Subregion (PDF).” In Proceedings of the Conference of GMS, pp. 138–147. 2020.

Rogers, Peter. “Facing the freshwater crisis.” Scientific American 299, no. 2 (2008): 46–53.

Kenway, Steven. “Household water-related energy use: Understanding and reducing energy costs.” Water21 (2013): 28–29.

Greywater Recycling and Stormwater Management

Nance, Earthea B. “Putting participation in context: An evaluation of urban sanitation in Brazil.” (2002): 2035–2035.

Groundwater Issues in Developing Countries

Pennington, Karrie Lynn, and Thomas V. Cech. “Groundwater hydrology.” In Introduction to Water Resources and Environmental Issues. Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 86–114. ISBN: 9780521869881.

MacDonald, Alan, Jeffrey Davies, Roger Calow, and John Chilton. Developing Groundwater: A Guide for Rural Water Supply. Practical Action, 2005. ISBN: 9781853395963.

Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner, and Tom Gleeson. “Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion.” Nature Geoscience 5, no. 12 (2012): 853.

Handwashing and Hygiene

Curtis, Val, Wolf Schmidt, et al. “Hygiene: New hopes, new horizons.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11, no. 4 (2011): 312–321.

Hernandez, Orlando, and S. Tobias. “Access and behavioral outcome indicators for water, sanitation, and hygiene.” USAID Hygiene Improvement Project 81 (2010).

Luby, Stephen, Mubina Agboatwalla, et al. “Effect of intensive handwashing promotion on childhood diarrhea in high-risk communities in Pakistan: A randomized controlled trial.” Jama 291, no. 21 (2004): 2547–2554.

Cercone, J, Briceno, R and Concheso, T. “Economic analysis of handwashing in Central America and Peru: Developing cost-effective approaches to improving health.” Sanigest, 2004. 

Household and Community Water Treatment and Safe Storage

Nath, K. J., Sally Bloomfield, and Martin Jones. “Household water storage, handling and point-of-use treatment (PDF).” A review commissioned by IFH (2006).

Masters, Gilbert M., and Wendell P. Ela. “Water treatment.” In Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science. 3rd edition. Prentice Hall, 1991, pp. 187–310. ISBN: 9780131481930.

Guinea worm cloth filter: Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) product and implementation fact sheet (PDF).”  

Hunger and Malnutrition

Selendy, Janine MH, ed. Water and Sanitation-Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, Interventions, and Preventive Measures. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. ISBN: 9780470527856.

Smith, Michelle I., Tanya Yatsunenko, et al. “Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor.” Science 339, no. 6119 (2013): 548–554.

Campbell, D. I., M. Elia, and P. G. Lunn. “Growth faltering in rural Gambian infants is associated with impaired small intestinal barrier function, leading to endotoxemia and systemic inflammation.” The Journal of Nutrition 133, no. 5 (2003): 1332–1338.

International Health Economics

Kristof, N. D. “Let’s Start a War, One We Can Win.” The New York Times 20 (2007).

Gunther, Isabel, and Gunther Fink. “Water, sanitation, and children’s health: Evidence from 172 DHS surveys (PDF).” The World Bank, 2010.

Cohen, Jessica, and Pascaline Dupas. “Free distribution or cost-sharing? Evidence from a randomized malaria prevention experiment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 125, no. 1 (2010). 

Hutton, Guy, Laurence Haller, Sanitation Water, and World Health Organization. “Evaluation of the costs and benefits of water and sanitation improvements at the global level (PDF).” World Health Organization, 2004. 

Ashraf, Nava, James Berry, and Jesse Shapiro. “Can higher prices stimulate product use? Evidence from a field experiment in Zambia.” American Economic Review 100, no. 5 (2010): 2383–2413. 

International WASH-Health Financing

de Moor, A.P.G., and Peter Calamai. Subsidizing Unsustainable Development: Undermining the Earth with Public Funds. Institute for Research on Public Expenditure (IRPE), 1997. ISBN: 9780968184400.

Rogers, Peter, Ramesh Bhatia, and Annette Huber. “Water as a social and economic good: How to put the principle into practice (PDF).” Stockholm: Global Water Partnership, 1998.

Rogers, Peter, Radhika De Silva, and Ramesh Bhatia. “Water is an economic good: How to use prices to promote equity, efficiency, and sustainability.” Water Policy 4, no. 1 (2002): 1–17.

Whittington, Dale. “Municipal water pricing and tariff design: A reform agenda for South Asia.” Water Policy 5, no. 1 (2003): 61–76. 

McPhail, Alexander. “The ‘five percent rule’ for improved water service: Can households afford more?” World Development 21, no. 6 (1993): 963–973.

Whittington, Dale, Donald T. Lauria, Vimalanand Prabhu, and Joe Cook. “An economic reappraisal of the Melamchi water supply project-Kathmandu, Nepal.” Portuguese Economic Journal 3, no. 2 (2004): 157–178.

Pattanayak, Subhrendu, Jui‐Chen Yang, Dale Whittington, and K.C. Bal Kumar. “Coping with unreliable public water supplies: Averting expenditures by households in Kathmandu, Nepal.” Water Resources Research 41, no. 2 (2005).

Whittington, Dale, Subhrendu Pattanayak, Jui-Chen Yang, and K.C. Bal Kumar. “Household demand for improved piped water services: Evidence from Kathmandu, Nepal.” Water Policy 4, no. 6 (2002): 531–556.

Crane, Randall. “Water markets, market reform and the urban poor: Results from Jakarta, Indonesia.” World Development 22, no. 1 (1994): 71–83.  

On-Site Sanitation in Durban, South Africa

Harrison, J., B. Pfaff, T. Gounden, and C. Buckley. “Free sustainable basic water and sanitation: The Durban experience.” Water and Wastewater Management in Developing Countries (2004): 28–30.

Wilson, Zoë, and Bill Pfaff. “Religious, philosophical and environmentalist perspectives on potable wastewater reuse in Durban, South Africa.” Desalination 228, no. 1–3 (2008): 1–9.

Koenig, Robert. “Durban’s poor get water services long denied.” Science 319, no. 5864 (2008): 744–745.

Berndtsson, Justyna Czemiel, and Ingrid Hyvönen. “Are there sustainable alternatives to water-based sanitation system? Practical illustrations and policy issues.” Water Policy 4, no. 6 (2002): 515–530.

Wilson, Zoë, Mandla Malakoana, and Teddy Gounden. “Trusting consumers: Involving communities in municipal water service decision making in Durban, South Africa.” Water SA 34, no. 2 (2008): 141–146.

Planning for WASH-ENV

Pickford, John. Low-Cost Sanitation: A Survey of Practical Experience. Practical Action, 1995,  pp. 113–132. ISBN: 9781853392337.

Iyer, Param, Jennifer Sara, et al. “The handwashing handbook. A guide for developing a hygiene promotion program to increase handwashing with soap.” The World Bank (2005). 

Ejemot‐Nwadiaro, Regina I., John E. Ehiri, et al. “Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2015). 

Curtis, Valerie A., Lisa O. Danquah, and Robert V. Aunger. “Planned, motivated, and habitual hygiene behaviour: An eleven country review.” Health Education Research 24, no. 4 (2009): 655–673.

Public Health Engineering

Kosinski, Karen Claire, Jonathan J. Crocker, et al. “A novel community-based water recreation area for schistosomiasis control in rural Ghana.” Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 1, no. 4 (2011): 259–268.

Kosinski, Karen C., Michael N. Adjei, et al. “Effective control of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a Ghanaian community following installation of a water recreation area.” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6, no. 7 (2012). 

Sanitation Services Delivery

EAWAG, WSSCC. “Compendium of sanitation systems and technologies.” 2008.

Construction of ecological sanitation latrine: Technical handbook.” WaterAid, 2011.

Kar, Kamal, and Katherine Pasteur. “Subsidy or self-respect? Community led total sanitation. An update on recent developments (PDF - 4.8MB).” Institute of Development Studies, 2005. 

The case for marketing sanitation (PDF).” Water and Sanitation Program, 2004.

Tarr, Joel. “Water and wastewater: The origins of the piped society.” In The Compositing Toilet System Book. Ecowaters Books, 2000. ISBN: 9780966678307.

Pickford, John. Low-cost sanitation: A survey of practical experience. Practical Action, 1995,  pp. 101–112. ISBN: 9781853392337.

Sources of Water

U.N. Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. “General comment no. 15 (2002): The right to water (arts. 11 and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights).” UN, 2003. 

Cairncross, Sandy, and Richard Feachem. Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics: Water, Sanitation and Disease Control. Wiley, 2993. ISBN: 9780471938859.

Skinner, Brian. Small-Scale Water Supply: A Review of Technologies. Practical Action, 2003. ISBN: 9781853395406.

Netherlands Water Partnership. Smart Water Solutions: Examples of Innovative, Low-Cost Technologies for Wells, Pumps, Storage,… KIT Publishers, 2009. ISBN: 9789460220050.

Sustainability and Governance

Starkl, Markus, and Norbert Brunner. “Feasibility versus sustainability in urban water management.” Journal of Environmental Management 71, no. 3 (2004): 245–260.

Jaglin, Sylvy. “The right to water versus cost recovery: Participation, urban water supply, and the poor in sub-Saharan Africa.” Environment and Urbanization 14, no. 1 (2002): 231–245. 

Public Citizen’s Water for All Program. “Water Privatization Fiascos: Web site cases on Buenos Aires, Manila, Cochabamba, Atlanta, Jakarta, Nelspruit, and the United Kingdom (PDF).” Public Citizen, 2003.

Brunner, Norbert, and Markus Starkl. “Financial and economic determinants of collective action: The case of wastewater management.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review 32, no. 1 (2012): 140–150.

McGranahan, Gordon and David Satterthwaite. “Environmental health or ecological sustainability? Reconciling the brown and green agendas in urban development.” Chapter 3 in Planning in Cities: Sustainability and Growth in the Developing World. Roger Zetter and Rodney White, eds.. Practical Action, 2003. ISBN: 9781853395437.

Urban & Centralized Water Treatment Systems

Van den Berg, Caroline, and Alexander Danilenko. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Performance Blue Book: The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook. The World Bank, 2010. ISBN: 9780821385821.

Gerardo Galvis, Geraldo. Development and Evaluation of Multistage Filtration Plants: An Innovative, Robust, and Efficient Water Treatment Technology. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey, Centre for Environmental Health Engineering, School of Engineering, 1999. Chapter 2.

Postel, Sandra L. “Aquatic ecosystem protection and drinking water utilities.” Journal‐American Water Works Association 99, no. 2 (2007): 52–63.

Jacobi, Pedro, Marianne Kjellen, Gordon McGranahan, Jacob Songsore, and Charles Surjadi. The Citizens at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities. Routledge, 2010. ISBN: 9781853835612.

WASH and Citizenship

Davis, Jennifer. “Private-sector participation in the water and sanitation sector.” Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 30 (2005): 145–183.

James, A. J., Joep Verhagen, Christine Van Wijk, Reema Nanavaty, Mita Parikh, and Mihir Bhatt. “Transforming time into money using water: a participatory study of economics and gender in rural India.” In Natural Resources Forum, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 205-217. Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 2002.

WASH Institutions & Stakeholders

Izaguirre, Ada Karina, and Edouard Perard. “Private Activity in Water Supply Declined in 2008.” The World Bank Group, 2009.

Isham, Jonathan, Deepa Narayan, and Lant Pritchett. “Does participation improve performance? Establishing causality with subjective data.” The World Bank Economic Review 9, no. 2 (1995): 175–200.

Gleick, Peter H., and Nicholas L. Cain. The World’s Water 2004-2005: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Island Press, 2004. [Preview with Google Books]

Solo, Tova Maria. Independent Water Entrepreneurs in Latin America: The Other Private Sector in Water Services. The World Bank, 2003.

WASH Library

Bartram, Jamie, ed. “Introduction.” In Routledge Handbook of Water and Health. Routledge, 2018. ISBN: 9781138495302.

Gundry, Stephen W., James A. Wright, et al. “Contamination of drinking water between source and point-of-use in rural households of South Africa and Zimbabwe: implications for monitoring the Millennium Development Goal for water.” Water Practice and Technology 1, no. 2 (2006).

Damania, Richard, Sébastien Desbureaux, et al. Quality Unknown: The Invisible Water Crisis. The World Bank, 2019. ISBN: 9781464814594.

World Health Organization. “National systems to support drinking-water: sanitation and hygiene: global status report 2019: UN-Water global analysis and assessment of sanitation and drinking-water: GLAAS 2019 report.” World Health Organization, 2019.

Mitlin, Diana, Victoria A. Beard, David Satterthwaite, and Jillian Du. “Unaffordable and undrinkable: Rethinking urban water access in the Global South (PDF).”

United Nations Water. “Sustainable Development Goal 6 synthesis report on water and sanitation.” United Nations New York (2018).

World Health Organization. “Healthy environments: why do the matter and what can we do? (PDF)” No. WHO/CED/PHE/DO/19.01. World Health Organization, 2019.

World Health Organization. “WHO water, sanitation and hygiene strategy 2018-2025 (PDF).” No. WHO/CED/PHE/WSH/18.03. World Health Organization, 2018.

WHO, UNICEF. “Safely managed drinking water-thematic report on drinking water (PDF).” Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2017).

WASH, Climate, and Health

Falkenmark, Malin, and Johan Rockström. “Building water resilience in the face of global change: From a blue-only to a green-blue water approach to land-water management.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 136, no. 6 (2010): 606–610.

Pahl-Wostl, Claudia. “Transitions towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change.” Water Resources Management 21, no. 1 (2007): 49–62.

Mearns, Robin, and Andrew Norton. Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Equity and Vulnerability in a Warming World. World Bank Publications, 2009. Chapter 1. ISBN: 9780821378878.

Wastewater Treatment

Corcoran, Emily, ed. Sick Water? The Central Role of Wastewater Management in Sustainable Development: A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations, 2010. ISBN: 9788277010755.

Mara, Duncan. Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Earthscan, 2004. ISBN: 9781844070190.

Niemczynowicz, Janusz. “The water profession and Agenda 21.” Water Quality International 3, no. 1997 (1997): 9–11.

Tarr, Joel A., James McCurley, Francis C. McMichael, and Terry Yosie. “Water and wastes: a retrospective assessment of wastewater technology in the United States, 1800–1932.” Technology and Culture 25, no. 2 (1984): 226–263.

Graham, Jay P. “Successful sanitation projects in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.” In Water and Sanitation Related Diseases and the Environment: Challenges, Interventions and Preventive Measures. Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. pp 251-256. ISBN: 9780470527856.

Asano, Takashi. “Wastewater management and reuse in mega-cities.” In Water for Urban Areas, Challenges and Prospectives. United Nations University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9789280810240.

Murcott, Susan, Andy Dunn, and Donald Harleman. “Wastewater treatment for agricultural irrigation in Mexico.” In Water and Agriculture: Implications for Development and Growth. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2009.