Readings

Readings for the subject will comprise lecture notes, Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides, journal articles, and selections from textbooks. This page lists the journal articles and textbook selections for each lecture session.

In lieu of a course text, this page also presents all of the readings organized in a "virtual textbook."

Lec #TOPICSReadings
Part I. Principles of Tissue Engineering: Scaffolds and Cells
1

Course Overview/Clinical Problems for Tissue Engineering Solution

Introduction to Tissue Engineering in China

Scaffolds: Introduction
 

Scaffolds: Collagen-GAG Analogs of Extracellular Matrix

Liu, Wei, Lei Cui, and Yilin Cao. "A Closer View of Tissue Engineering in China: The Experience of Tissue Construction in Immunocompetent Animals." Tissue Engineering 9, Suppl. 1 (2003): S17-S30.

Xiang, Zhou, and Myron Spector. "A Glimpse of Tissue Engineering in China." Tissue Engineering 8, no. 2 (2002): 169-174.

Spector, M. "Novel Cell–Scaffold Interactions Encountered in Tissue Engineering: Contractile Behavior of Musculoskeletal Connective Tissue Cells." Tissue Engineering 8, no. 3 (2002): 351-357.

Buy at Amazon Chamberlain, Lila J., and Loannis V. Yannas. "Preparation of Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Copolymers for Tissue Regeneration." Tissue Engineering Methods and Protocols. Vol. 18, Methods in Molecular Medicine. Edited by J. R. Morgan and M. L. Yarmush. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc., 1998, pp. 3-17. ISBN: 9780896035164 .

Ellis, D. L., and I. V. Yannas. "Recent Advances in Tissue Synthesis in Vivo by use of Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Copolymers." Biomaterials 17, no. 3 (1996): 291-299.

Yannas, Ioannis V. "Synthesis of Organs: In Vitro or in Vivo?" PNAS 97, no. 17 (August 15, 2000): 9354-9356.

2

Cells: Liver Cells

Scaffolds: Recent Advances in Tissue Engineering

Wang, X. H., D. P. Li, W. J. Wang, Q. L. Feng, F. Z. Cui, Y. X. Xu, X. H. Song, and Mark van der Werf. "Crosslinked Collagen/Chitosan Matrix for Artificial Livers." Biomaterials 24 (2003): 3213-3220.
3

Scaffolds: Free-Form Manufacturing

Scaffolds: Self-Assembled Proteins

Review

Curodeau, Alan, Emanuel Sachs, and Salvatore Caldarise. "Design and Fabrication of Cast Orthopedic Implants with Freeform Surface Textures from 3-D Printed Ceramic Shell." J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (Appl. Biomater.) 53 (2000): 525-535. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Yan, Yongnian, Zhuo Xiong, Yunyu Hu, Shenguo Wang, Renji Zhang, and Chao Zhang. "Layered Manufacturing of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds via Multi-Nozzle Deposition." Materials Letters 57 (2003): 2623–2628.

Xiong, Zhuo, Yongnian Yan, Shenguo Wang, Renji Zhang, and Chao Zhang. "Fabrication of Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering via Low-temperature Deposition." Scripta Materialia 46 (2002): 771–776.

Kisiday, J., M. Jin, B. Kurz, H. Hung, C. Semino, S. Zhang, and A. J. Grodzinsky. "Self-Assembling Peptide Hydrogel Fosters Chondrocyte Extracellular Matrix Production and Cell Division: Implications for Cartilage Tissue Repair." PNAS 99, no. 15 (July 23, 2002): 9996–10001.

Zhang, Shuguang, Todd C. Holmes, C. Michael DiPersio, Richard O. Hynes, Xing Su, and Alexander Rich. "Self-Complementary Oligopeptide Matrices Support Mammalian Cell Attachment." Biomaterials 16 (1995): 1385-1393.

Zhang, Shuguang, Davide M. Marini, Wonmuk Hwang, and Steve Santoso. "Design of Nanostructured Biological Materials through Self-Assembly of Peptides and Proteins." Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 6 (2002): 865–871.

4

Cells: Sources

Cells: Differentiated versus Stem Cells

Kojima, Koji, Lawrence J. Bonassar, Amit K. Roy, Hirokazu Mizuno, Joaquin Cortiella, and Charles A. Vacanti. "A Composite Tissue-Engineered Trachea using Sheep Nasal Chondrocyte and Epithelial Cells." Faseb J. 17 (2003): 823-828.

Vacanti, Martin P., Amit Roy, Joaquin Cortiella, Lawrence Bonassar, and Charles A. Vacanti. "Identification and Initial Characterization of Spore-Like Cells in Adult Mammals." Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 80 (2001): 455-460.

Part II. Principles of Tissue Engineering: Cells and Regulators
5

Scaffolds: Biomimetics Design

Cells: Effects of Culture Conditions

Review

Du, C., F. Z. Cui, W. Zhang, Q. L. Feng, X. D. Zhu, and K. de Groot. "Formation of Calcium Phosphate/Collagen Composites through Mineralization of Collagen Matrix." J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 50 (2000): 518–527. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Zhang, W., S. S. Liao, and F. Z. Cui. "Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Nano-Fibrils in Mineralized Collagen." Chem. Mater. 15 (2003): 3221-3226.

6Quiz 1 
7

Regulators: Response to Mechanical Loading

Regulators: Roles of Environmental Factors

Buschmann, Michael D., Yehezkiel A. Gluzband, Alan J. Grodzinsky, and Ernst B. Hunziker. "Mechanical Compression Modulates Matrix Biosynthesis in Chondrocyte/Agarose Culture." Journal of Cell Science 108 (1995): 1497-1508.

Buy at Amazon Grodzinsky, A. J., Y-J. Kim, and M. A. DiMicco. "Response of The Chondrocyte to Mechanical Stimuli." Section 7.2.1.5 in Osteoarthritis. 2nd ed. Edited by Kenneth D. Brandt, Michael Doherty, and Stefan Lohmander. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780198509677 .

Martin, Ivan, R. Suetterlin, W. Baschong, M. Heberer, G. Vunjak-Novakovic, and L. E. Freed. "Enhanced Cartilage Tissue Engineering by Sequential Exposure of Chondrocytes to FGF-2 During 2D Expansion and BMP-2 During 3D Cultivation." Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 83 (2001): 121-128.

8

Cells: Embryonic and Other Stem Cell for Tissue Engineering

Gene Therapy

Regulators: Gene Transfer Wedded to Tissue Engineering

Samuel, R. E., C. R. Lee, S. C. Ghivizzani, C. H. Evans, I. V. Yannas, B. R. Olsen, and M. Spector. "Delivery of Plasmid DNA to Articular Chondrocytes via Novel Collagen–Glycosaminoglycan Matrices." Human Gene Therapy 13 (May 1, 2002): 791–802.

Lieberman, Jay R., Steven C. Ghivizzani, and Christopher H. Evans. "Gene Transfer Approaches to the Healing of Bone and Cartilage." Molecular Therapy 6, no. 2, (August 2002): 141-147.

Part III. Practice of Tissue Engineering: Clinical Applications
9

Applications: Skin and Peripheral Nerve

Nerve Repair

Discussion: Clinical Applications

Yannas, I. V., J. F. Burke, D. P. Orgill, and E. M. Skrabut. "Wound Tissue can Utilize a Polymeric Template to Synthesize a Functional Extension of Skin." Science 215, no. 4529 (January 8, 1982): 174-176. (New Series)

Yannas, I. V., E. Lee, D. P. Orgill, E. M. Skrabut, and G. F. Murphy. "Synthesis and Characterization of a Model Extracellular Matrix that Induces Partial Regeneration of Adult Mammalian Skin." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86, no. 3 (February 1, 1989): 933-937.

Yang, Fei, Xunhu Li, Mingyu Cheng, Yandao Gong, Nanming Zhao, Xiufang Zhang, and Yinye Yang. "Performance Modification of Chitosan Membranes Induced by Gamma Irradiation." Journal of Biomaterials Applications 00 (November 2001): 1-12.

Haipeng, Gong, Zhong Yinghui, Li Jianchun, Gong Yandao, Zhao Nanming, and Zhang Xiufang. "Studies on Nerve Cell Affinity of Chitosan-Derived Materials." J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52 (2000): 285–295. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Cheng, Mingyu, Jinguang Deng, Fei Yang, Yandao Gong, Nanming Zhao, and Xiufang Zhang. "Study on Physical Properties and Nerve Cell Affinity of Composite Films from Chitosan and Gelatin Solutions." Biomaterials 24 (2003): 2871–2880.

10

Blood Vessels

Heart Valves

Discussion: Comparative Analysis of Tissue Engineering Strategies

Mitchell, Shannon L., and Laura E. Niklason. "Requirements for Growing Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts." Cardiovascular Pathology 12 (2003): 59-64.

Niklason, L. E., J. Gao, W. M. Abbott, K. K. Hirschi, S. Houser, R. Marini, and R. Langer. "Functional Arteries Grown in Vitro." Science 284 (April 16, 1999): 489-493.

Rabkin, Elena, and Frederick J. Schoen. "Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering." Cardiovascular Pathology 11 (2002): 305-317.

Schoen, Frederick J., and Robert J. Levy. "Tissue Heart Valves: Current Challenges and Future Research Perspectives." J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 47 (1999): 439–465. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

11

Urinary Tissues/Organs

Clinical Applications and Underlying Principles

References (PDF)

De Filippo, Roger E., James J. Yoo, and Anthony Atala. "Urethral Replacement using Cell Seeded Tubularized Collagen Matrices." The Journal of Urology 168 (October 2002): 1789–1793.

———. "Engineering of Vaginal Tissue in Vivo." Tissue Engineering 9, no. 2 (2003): 301-306.

Liu, Yanchun, Fuguo Chen, Wei Liu, Lei Cui, Qingxin Shang, Wangyao Xia, Jian Wang, Yimin Cui, Guanghui Yang, Deli Liu, Juanjuan Wu, Rong Xu, Samuel D. Buonocore, and Yilin Cao. "Repairing Large Porcine Full-Thickness Defects of Articular Cartilage Using Autologous Chondrocyte-Engineered Cartilage." Tissue Engineering 8, no. 4 (2002): 709-721.

Mao, Jinshu, Liguo Zhao, Kang de Yao, Qingxin Shang, Guanghui Yang, and Yilin Cao. "Study of Novel Chitosan-gelatin Artificial Skin in Vitro." J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 64A (2003): 301–308. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

12

Bone Regeneration

Cartilage Repair

Discussion: Review

Liao, S. S., K. Guan, F. Z. Cui, S. S. Shi, and T. S. Sun. "Lumbar Spinal Fusion with a Mineralized Collagen Matrix and rhBMP-2 in a Rabbit Model." SPINE 28, no. 17 (2003).

Wanga, Xiaohong, Jianbiao Ma, Qingling Feng, and Fuzhai Cui. "Skeletal Repair in Rabbits with Calcium Phosphate Cements Incorporated Phosphorylated Chitin." Biomaterials 23 (2002): 4591–4600.

Yu X., L. Xu, X. D. Zhang, and F. Z. Cui. "Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on Urinary Bladder Spinal Neural Pathway: A Retrograde Transneuronal Tracing Study with Pseudorabies Virus." Urology 62, no. 4 (2003): 1-5.

Lee, C. R., A. J. Grodzinsky, H. -P. Hsu, and M. Spector. "Effects of a Cultured Autologous Chondrocyte-Seeded Type II Collagen Scaffold on the Healing of a Chondral Defect in a Canine Model." Journal of Orthopaedic Research 21 (2003): 272–281.

13

Federal Regulatory Issues for Tissue Engineering Products in the U.S., China, and Other Countries

Brain Repair

Review

Melkerson, M. N. "Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) Regulated as Devices." US FDA Tissue Reference Group (TRG), August 29, 2001.
14Quiz 2 

Virtual Textbook

CHAPTER #READINGS
Section 0: Introduction to Tissue Engineering in China
S0. Introduction to Tissue Engineering in China

Liu, Wei, Lei Cui, and Yilin Cao. "A Closer View of Tissue Engineering in China: The Experience of Tissue Construction in Immunocompetent Animals." Tissue Engineering 9, Suppl. 1 (2003): S17-S30.

Xiang, Zhou, and Myron Spector. "A Glimpse of Tissue Engineering in China." Tissue Engineering 8, no. 2 (2002): 169-174.

Section 1: Scaffolds
S1 A. OverviewSpector, M. "Novel Cell–Scaffold Interactions Encountered in Tissue Engineering: Contractile Behavior of Musculoskeletal Connective Tissue Cells." Tissue Engineering 8, no. 3 (2002): 351-357.
S1 B. Historical Perspective and Design CriteriaSee notes for LEC 1.
S1 C. Collagen-GAG Analogs of Extracellular Matrix

Buy at Amazon Chamberlain, Lila J., and Loannis V. Yannas. "Preparation of Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Copolymers for Tissue Regeneration." Tissue Engineering Methods and Protocols. Vol. 18, Methods in Molecular Medicine. Edited by J. R. Morgan and M. L. Yarmush. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc., 1998, pp. 3-17. ISBN: 9780896035164 .

Ellis, D. L., and I. V. Yannas. "Recent Advances in Tissue Synthesis in Vivo by use of Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Copolymers." Biomaterials 17, no. 3 (1996): 291-299.

Yannas, Ioannis V. "Synthesis of Organs: In Vitro or in Vivo?" PNAS 97, no. 17 (August 15, 2000): 9354-9356.

S1 D. Free-Form Manufacturing

Curodeau, Alan, Emanuel Sachs, and Salvatore Caldarise. "Design and Fabrication of Cast Orthopedic Implants with Freeform Surface Textures from 3-D Printed Ceramic Shell." J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (Appl. Biomater.) 53 (2000): 525–535. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Yan, Yongnian, Zhuo Xiong, Yunyu Hu, Shenguo Wang, Renji Zhang, and Chao Zhang. "Layered Manufacturing of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds via Multi-Nozzle Deposition." Materials Letters 57 (2003): 2623–2628.

Xiong, Zhuo, Yongnian Yan, Shenguo Wang, Renji Zhang, and Chao Zhang. "Fabrication of Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering via Low-temperature Deposition." Scripta Materialia 46 (2002): 771–776.

S1 E. Self-Assembled Proteins

Kisiday, J., M. Jin, B. Kurz, H. Hung, C. Semino, S. Zhang, and A. J. Grodzinsky. "Self-Assembling Peptide Hydrogel Fosters Chondrocyte Extracellular Matrix Production and Cell Division: Implications for Cartilage Tissue Repair." PNAS 99, no. 15 (23 July 2002): 9996–10001.

Zhang, Shuguang, Todd C. Holmes, C. Michael DiPersio, Richard O. Hynes, Xing Su, and Alexander Rich. "Self-Complementary Oligopeptide Matrices Support Mammalian Cell Attachment." Biomaterials 16 (1995): 1385-1393.

Zhang, Shuguang, Davide M. Marini, Wonmuk Hwang, and Steve Santoso. "Design of Nanostructured Biological Materials through Self-Assembly of Peptides and Proteins." Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 6 (2002): 865–871.

S1 F. Biomimetics Design

Du, C., F. Z. Cui, W. Zhang, Q. L. Feng, X. D. Zhu, and K. de Groot. "Formation of Calcium Phosphate/Collagen Composites through Mineralization of Collagen Matrix." J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 50 (2000): 518–527. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Zhang, W., S. S. Liao, and F. Z. Cui. "Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Nano-Fibrils in Mineralized Collagen." Chem. Mater. 15 (2003): 3221-3226.

Section 2: Cells
S2 A. Sources

Kojima, Koji, Lawrence J. Bonassar, Amit K. Roy, Hirokazu Mizuno, Joaquin Cortiella, and Charles A. Vacanti. "A Composite Tissue-Engineered Trachea using Sheep Nasal Chondrocyte and Epithelial Cells." Faseb J. 17 (2003): 823-828.

Vacanti, Martin P., Amit Roy, Joaquin Cortiella, Lawrence Bonassar, and Charles A. Vacanti. "Identification and Initial Characterization of Spore-Like Cells in Adult Mammals." Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 80 (2001): 455-460.

S2 B. Differentiated versus Stem CellSee notes for LEC 4: (PDF)
S2 C. Liver CellsWang, X. H., D. P. Li, W. J. Wang, Q. L. Feng, F. Z. Cui, Y. X. Xu, X. H. Song, and Mark van der Werf. "Crosslinked Collagen/Chitosan Matrix for Artificial Livers." Biomaterials 24 (2003): 3213-3220.
S2 D. Effects of Culture ConditionsSee notes for LEC 5: (PDF) (Courtesy of Dr. Lisa Freed. Used with permission.)
S2 E. Embryonic and Other Stem CellsNo materials; discussed by Prof. Guo in LEC 8.
Section 3: Regulators
S3 A. Response to Mechanical Loading

Buschmann, Michael D., Yehezkiel A. Gluzband, Alan J. Grodzinsky, and Ernst B. Hunziker. "Mechanical Compression Modulates Matrix Biosynthesis in Chondrocyte/Agarose Culture." Journal of Cell Science 108 (1995): 1497-1508.

Buy at Amazon Grodzinsky, A. J., Y-J. Kim, and M. A. DiMicco. "Response of the chondrocyte to mechanical stimuli." Section 7.2.1.5 in Osteoarthritis. 2nd ed. Edited by Kenneth D. Brandt, Michael Doherty, and Stefan Lohmander. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780198509677 .

S3 B. Roles of Environmental FactorsMartin, Ivan, R. Suetterlin, W. Baschong, M. Heberer, G. Vunjak-Novakovic, and L. E. Freed. "Enhanced Cartilage Tissue Engineering by Sequential Exposure of Chondrocytes to FGF-2 During 2D Expansion and BMP-2 During 3D Cultivation." Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 83 (2001): 121-128.
S3 C. Principles of Gene TherapyNo materials; discussed by Dr. Chang in LEC 8.
S3 D. Gene Transfer Wedded to Tissue Engineering

Samuel, R. E., C. R. Lee, S. C. Ghivizzani, C. H. Evans, I. V. Yannas, B. R. Olsen, and M. Spector. "Delivery of Plasmid DNA to Articular Chondrocytes via Novel Collagen–Glycosaminoglycan Matrices." Human Gene Therapy 13 (May 1, 2002): 791–802.

Lieberman, Jay R., Steven C. Ghivizzani, and Christopher H. Evans. "Gene Transfer Approaches to the Healing of Bone and Cartilage." Molecular Therapy 6, no. 2, (August 2002): 141-147.

Section 4: Applications
S4 A. Skin and Peripheral Nerve

Yannas, I. V., J. F. Burke, D. P. Orgill, and E. M. Skrabut. "Wound Tissue can Utilize a Polymeric Template to Synthesize a Functional Extension of Skin." Science 215, no. 4529 (January 8, 1982): 174-176. (New Series)

Yannas, I. V., E. Lee, D. P. Orgill, E. M. Skrabut, and G. F. Murphy. "Synthesis and Characterization of a Model Extracellular Matrix that Induces Partial Regeneration of Adult Mammalian Skin." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86, no. 3 (February 1, 1989): 933-937.

S4 B. Nerve Repair

Yang, Fei, Xunhu Li, Mingyu Cheng, Yandao Gong, Nanming Zhao, Xiufang Zhang, and Yinye Yang. "Performance Modification of Chitosan Membranes Induced by Gamma Irradiation." Journal of Biomaterials Applications 00 (November 2001): 1-12.

Haipeng, Gong, Zhong Yinghui, Li Jianchun, Gong Yandao, Zhao Nanming, and Zhang Xiufang. "Studies on Nerve Cell Affinity of Chitosan-Derived Materials." J Biomed Mater Res. 52 (2000): 285–295. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

Cheng, Mingyu, Jinguang Deng, Fei Yang, Yandao Gong, Nanming Zhao, and Xiufang Zhang. "Study on Physical Properties and Nerve Cell Affinity of Composite Films from Chitosan and Gelatin Solutions." Biomaterials 24 (2003): 2871–2880.

S4 C. Blood Vessels

Mitchell, Shannon L., and Laura E. Niklason. "Requirements for Growing Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts." Cardiovascular Pathology 12 (2003): 59-64.

Niklason, L. E., J. Gao, W. M. Abbott, K. K. Hirschi, S. Houser, R. Marini, and R. Langer. "Functional Arteries Grown in Vitro." Science 284 (16 April 1999): 489-493.

S4 D. Heart Valves

Rabkin, Elena, and Frederick J. Schoen. "Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering." Cardiovascular Pathology 11 (2002): 305-317.

Schoen, Frederick J., and Robert J. Levy. "Tissue Heart Valves: Current Challenges and Future Research Perspectives." J Biomed Mater Res. 47 (1999): 439–465. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)

S4 E. Urinary Tissues/Organs

References (PDF)

De Filippo, Roger E., James J. Yoo, and Anthony Atala. "Urethral Replacement using Cell Seeded Tubularized Collagen Matrices." The Journal of Urology 168 (October 2002): 1789–1793.

———. "Engineering of Vaginal Tissue in Vivo." Tissue Engineering 9, no. 2 (2003): 301-306.

S4 F. Clinical Applications and Underlying Principles

Liu, Yanchun, Fuguo Chen, Wei Liu, Lei Cui, Qingxin Shang, Wangyao Xia, Jian Wang, Yimin Cui, Guanghui Yang, Deli Liu, Juanjuan Wu, Rong Xu, Samuel D. Buonocore, and Yilin Cao. "Repairing Large Porcine Full-Thickness Defects of Articular Cartilage Using Autologous Chondrocyte-Engineered Cartilage." Tissue Engineering 8, no. 4 (2002): 709-721.

Mao, Jinshu, Liguo Zhao, Kang de Yao, Qingxin Shang, Guanghui Yang, and Yilin Cao. "Study of Novel Chitosan-gelatin Artificial Skin in Vitro." J Biomed Mater Res. 64A (2003): 301–308. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

S4 G. Bone Regeneration

Liao, S. S., K. Guan, F. Z. Cui, S. S. Shi, and T. S. Sun. "Lumbar Spinal Fusion With a Mineralized Collagen Matrix and rhBMP-2 in a Rabbit Model." Spine 28, no. 17 (2003): 1-7.

Wanga, Xiaohong, Jianbiao Ma, Qingling Feng, and Fuzhai Cui. "Skeletal Repair in Rabbits with Calcium Phosphate Cements Incorporated Phosphorylated Chitin." Biomaterials 23 (2002): 4591–4600.

Yu X., L. Xu, X. D. Zhang, and F. Z. Cui. "Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on Urinary Bladder Spinal Neural Pathway: A Retrograde Transneuronal Tracing Study with Pseudorabies Virus." Urology 62, no. 4 (2003): 1-5.

S4 H. Cartilage RepairLee, C. R., A. J. Grodzinsky, H. -P. Hsu, and M. Spector. "Effects of a Cultured Autologous Chondrocyte-Seeded Type II Collagen Scaffold on the Healing of a Chondral Defect in a Canine Model." Journal of Orthopaedic Research 21 (2003): 272–281.
S4 I. Federal Regulatory Issues for Tissue Engineering Products in the U.S., China, and other CountriesMelkerson, M. N. "Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) Regulated as Devices." US FDA Tissue Reference Group (TRG), August 29, 2001.
S4 J. Brain RepairNo materials.
S4 K. Spinal Cord, Lung, and HeartNo materials; discussed by Prof. Cui in LEC 13.