week # TOPICS Readings
1 Introduction: Writing Simple Perl Programs Buy at Amazon Hutchinson, Alan. Chapter 1 in Algorithmic Learning. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN: 0198538480.
2 What is Learning?

Basic Terms and Concepts
Buy at Amazon Weiss, Sholom M., and Casimir A. Kulikowski. "How to Estimate the True Performance of a Learning System." Chapter 2 in Computer Systems that Learn: Classification and Prediction Methods from Statistics, Neural Nets, Machine Learning, and Expert Systems. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., January 1, 1991. ISBN: 1558600655.
3 Learning Models (for Phonology) Jusczyk, P. W., A. Friderici, J. M. Wessels, V. Y. Svenkerud, and A. M. Jusczyk. "Infants' Sensitivity to the Sound Patterns of Native Language Words." Journal of Memory and Language 32 (1993): 402-420.

Coleman, John S., and Janet B. Pierrehumbert. "Stochastic Phonological Grammars and Acceptability." In Computational Phonology: Third Meeting of the ACL Special Interest Group in Computational Phonology. Somerset, NJ: Association for Computational Linguistics, 1997, pp. 49–56.

Buy at Amazon Tjong, Erik F., Kim Sang, and John Nerbonne. "Learning the Logic of Simple Phonotactics." In Learning Language in Logic. Vol. 1925 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. New York: Springer Verlag, 2000, pp. 110–124. ISBN: 3540411453.
4 Calculating Statistical Generalizations Tesar, B., and P. Smolensky. "Learnability in Optimality Theory (Short Version)." Technical Report JHU-CogSci-96-2, Cognitive Science Department, The Johns Hopkins University. ROA-155, 1996.
[A revised version of this paper has appeared as: Tesar, and Smolensky. "Learnability in Optimality Theory." Linguistic Inquiry 29 (1998): 229-268.]

Buy at Amazon Prince, A., and B. Tesar. "Learning Phonotactic Distributions." In Fixing Priorities: Constraints in Phonological Acquisition. Edited by R. Kager, J. Pater, and W. Zonneveld. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN: 0521829631.
5 Statistical Models (cont.) Buy at Amazon Hayes, B. "Phonological Acquisition in Optimality Theory: The Early Stages." In Fixing Priorities: Constraints in Phonological Acquisition. Edited by R. Kager, J. Pater, and W. Zonneveld. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN: 0521829631.

Boersma, Paul, and Bruce Hayes. "Empirical Tests of the Gradual Learning Algorithm." Linguistic Inquiry 32, no. 1 (2001): 45–86.

Albro, Daniel M. "A Probabilistic Ranking Learner for Phonotactics." Proceedings of the 2000 Conference of the Linguistics Society of America. Chicago, IL, 2000.
6 Learning OT Grammars - Introduction Bailey, Todd, and Ulrike Hahn. "Determinants of Wordlikeness: Phonotactics or Lexical Neighborhoods?" Journal of Memory and Language 44 (2001): 568–591.
7 Learning in OT (cont.) - Ranking Biases Eddington (2003).
8 Learning in OT (cont.) - Reasoning about Rankings Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon Pierrehumbert, J. "Probabilistic Phonology: Discrimation and Robustness." In Probabilistic Linguistics. Edited by R. Bod, J. Hay, and S. Jannedy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. ISBN: 0262025361.
9 Learning in OT (cont.) - Stochastic Constraint Ranking Zuraw, Kie. Selections, 2004.
10 Learning in OT (cont.) Tesar, Bruce, and Alan Prince. "Using Phonotactics to Learn Phonological Alternations." [To appear in The Proceedings of CLS 39, Vol. II: The Panels. ROA-620.]
11 Learning Alternations Albright, Adam, and Bruce Hayes. "Modeling English Past Tense Intuitions with Minimal Generalization." In Proceedings of the Sixth Meeting of the ACL Special Interest Group in Computational Phonology. Edited by Michael Maxwell. Philadelphia: ACL, July 2002.
12 Learning Alternations (cont.)  

Supplemental Readings

Boersma, Paul. "A Stochastic OT Account of Paralinguistic Tasks such as Grammaticality and Prototypicality Judgments." 2004. [Manuscript]

Burke, Sean M., and Sheri Wells-Jensen. "Braille Contractions and Regular Expressions." The Perl Journal . 1999.

Everett, Dan, and Iris Berent. "The Comparative Optimality of Hebrew Roots: An Experimental Approach to Violable Identity Constraints." ROA-235, Rutgers Optimality Archive.

Gildea, D., and D. Jurafsky. "Learning Bias and Phonological-rule Induction." Computational Linguistics 22, no. 4 (1996): 497–530.

Goldwater, Sharon, and Mark Johnson. "Learning OT Constraint Rankings Using a Maximum Entropy Model." Proceedings of the Workshop on Variation within Optimality Theory. Stockholm University: 2003.

Jäger, Gerhard. "Maximum Entropy Models and Stochastic Optimality Theory." 2004. [Unpublished Manuscript]

Jäger, and Rosenbach. "The Winner Takes it All -- Almost. Cumulativity in Grammatical Variation." [Unpublished Manuscript]

Johnson, Flemming, and Wright. "The Hyperspace Effect: Phonetic Targets are Hyperarticulated." Language 69 (1993): 505-528.

Jusczyk, Luce, and Charles-Luce. "Infants' Sensitivity to Phonotactic Patterns in the Native Language." Journal of Memory and Language 33 (1994): 630-645.

Keller, and Asudeh. "Probabilistic Learning Algorithms and OT." Linguistic Inquiry 33, no. 2 (2002): 225-244.

Kessler, Brett, and Rebecca Treiman. "Syllable Structure and the Distribution of Phonemes in English Syllables." Journal of Memory and Language 37, no. 3, (October 1997): 295-311.

Konstantopoulos, S. "Learning Phonotactics using ILP." Special Issue of the WEB-SLS On-line Journal: The Language Sections of the ESSLLI-01 Student Session. 2002.

Buy at Amazon Kruskal, Joseph. "An Overview of Sequence Comparison." In Time Warps, String Edits, and Macromolecules. Edited by David Sankoff and Kruskal. Stanford: CSLI, 1999. pp. 1-44. ISBN: 1575862174.

Maslova, Elena. "Stochastic OT as a Model of Constraint Interaction." ROA-694, Rutgers Optimality Archive. [Manuscript]

McCarthy, John. "Taking a Free Ride in Morphophonemic Learning." ROA-683, Rutgers Optimality Archive.

Nerbonne, J., and S. Konstantopoulos. "Phonotactics in Inductive Logic Programming." In Intelligent Information Processing and Web Mining: Proceedings of the International IIS: IIPWM’04 Conference held in Zakopane, Poland, May 17-20, 2004. Advances in Soft Computing. Edited by A. Mieczyslaw, S. T. Wierzchon, and K. Trojanowski. Berlin: Springer, 2004, pp. 493–502.

Nerbonne, J., and I. Stoianov. "Learning Phonotactics with Simple Processors." In On the Boundaries of Phonology and Phonetics. Edited by D. Gilbers, M. Schreuder, and N. Knevel. Groningen, 2004, pp. 89–121. CLCG. ISBN: 9036719305.

Pater, Joe, and Anne-Michelle Tessier. "Phonotactic Knowledge and the Acquisition of Alternations." In Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Phonetic Sciences. Edited by M. J. Solé, D. Recasens, and J. Romero. Barcelona: 2003, pp. 1777-1180.

Pierrehumbert, Janet. "Knowledge of Variation." In CLS 30: Papers from the 30th Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society, Volume 2: The Parasession on Variation in Linguistic Theory. Edited by Katharine Beals, et. al. 1994. pp. 232-256.

Buy at Amazon Sholem, Weiss, and Casimir Kulikowski. "How to Estimate the True Performance of a Learning System." Chapter 2 in Computer Systems that Learn. [Source: Weiss, S. M., and Kulikowski, C. A. Computer Systems That Learn. San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1991. ISBN: 1558600655.]

Sommerstein, Alan. "On Phonotactically Motivated Rules." Journal of Linguistics 10 (1974): 71-94.

Tjong, Erik F., and Kim Sang. Machine Learning of Phonotactics. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Groningen. 1998.

Tjong, Erik F., Kim Sang, and J. Nerbonne. "Learning Simple Phonotactics." In Proceedings of the Workshop on Neural, Symbolic, and Reinforcement Methods for Sequence Processing. ML2 Workshop at IJCAI’99, Stockholm,Sweden. 1999, pp. 41-46.

Whalen, D. H., et. al. "Lexical Effects in the Perception and Production of American English /p/ allophones." Journal of Phonetics 25 (1997): 501-528.

Zuraw, Kie Ross. "Patterned Exceptions in Phonology." (PhD dissertation) UCLA, 2000.