MAS.450 | Spring 2003 | Undergraduate

Holographic Imaging


This page contains a complete list of reading material for MAS.450, beginning with articles by Michael Halle. It also includes all of the bibliographic information for all readings.


Although holography was invented more than 50 years ago, and entered its modern (laser) age about 35 years ago, it remains an infant and struggling medium, and its literature is correspondingly scattered and often hard to find. This course will depend mainly on readings from draft chapters of Prof. Benton’s forthcoming book on holography. However, there are many things left to learn in the literature.   
Many of the items listed here are available at various libraries at MIT, and catalog numbers will gradually join this list (bring in those you dig out, too). Some of the other books can be examined at the Spatial Imaging Laboratory (although not checked out). Accumulating your own library will be slow because many of these volumes were produced in small numbers, and may now be out of print. We will appreciate any additions to this shopping list you may wish to recommend. Books that might be referred to in class are grouped first — the others are intended only as collateral reading suggestions. Much of the important original literature is in the archival journals, such as the Journal of the Optical Society of America, as well as in the Symposium Proceedings listed below. Most of the readings have extensive bibliographies, and a specialized list of journal references might be finished by the end of the term. Patents can also be an important source of information, but are not included here.


Power and Units (PDF) (February 11, 2003)

Calculating Spatial Frequency (PDF) (Sept. 18, 1998)

Holographic Photochemistry: Basic Process (PDF) (Feb. 17, 2003)

Electron Micrographs of Hologram Cross Sections (fr. Akagi et. al.) (October 8, 1998)

A Catalog of Sources (PDF) (Feb. 17, 2003)

Measuring Angles and Radii of Curvature (PDF) (October 19, 1998)

Understanding Astigmatism (PDF) (March 9, 2003)

  • Chapter 10: Off-axis Holography (PDF)
  • Chapter 10 Appendix: Horizontal and Vertical Focus (PDF)

Astigmatism Model (PDF) (October 6, 1998)

Transmission Hologram Equations (PDF) (October 6, 1998)

Holographic Photochemistry, A Summary (PDF) (October 8, 1998)

Notes on Off-axis Reflection Holography (PDF) (three pages):

  • Reflection Ray-tracing
  • Reflection Holography: Off-axis Reflection Holography
  • Reflection Holography: Calculation Pseudocode

Books of Direct Interest

Cathey, Thomas W. Optical Information Processing and Holography. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 1974.   
This graduate level electrical engineering oriented text is much more mathematical than needed here, but it is comprehensive and interesting to read. Recently reprinted.

Collier, R., C. B. Burckhardt, and L. Lin. Optical Holography. N.Y.: Academic Press, 1971. (Paperback 1977).   
This is the “bible” of holography, available in paperback, and contains sections on many topics still of interest to display holographers. It is somewhat dated (nicely superseded by Hariharan), and invokes more math than we will use.

Falk, D. S., D. R. Brill, and D. G. Stork. “Holography.” Chap. 14. in Seeing the Light: Optics in Nature, Photography, Color, Vision and Holography. N.Y.: Harper and Row, 1986, 368-393.   
Of the “physics for poets” genre. Highly interesting and simplified, but reasonably accurate, lots of pictures and almost no math!

Goodman, J. W. Introduction to Fourier Optics. San Francisco, CA: McGraw-Hill, 1968. (2nd Edition 1996). Esp. Ch. 9.   
The first, and still the foremost, text on the application of communication theory concepts to the analysis of coherent optical imaging systems (graduate EE math level). The longest chapter is on holography.

Hariharan, P. M. Optical Holography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, UK, 1984. (Paperback 1986, 2nd Edition 1996).   
A very nice self-contained treatment of the principles, techniques, and application, tempered by a good sense of what really matters, and what really works. Hariharan has made also several important contributions to the science of holography.

Hecht, E. Optics. 2nd Ed. Reading, MA: Addisn-Wesley, 1987.   
A very good all-round undergraduate text on optics. Includes a section on holography (pre-rainbow).

Theory and Problems of Optics. N.Y.: Schaum’s Outline Series, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1975.   
A concise survey of the wave-optical concepts involved in holography, with many example problems and solutions. A bargain at $10, unless you want the introductory material such as below.

Iovine, John. Homemade Holograms. PA: Tab Books, Blue Ridge Summit, 1990.

O’Shea, D. C., W. R. Callen, and W. T. Rhodes. Introduction to Lasers and Their Applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1977.   
An undergraduate-level survey of laser technology with good explanations, including Chap. 7: “Holography.”

Saxby, G. Manual of Practical Holography. Oxford: Focal Press, 1991.   
Although most of the experimental hardware is idiosyncratic, the practical concepts are very well explained.

Practical Holography. 2nd Ed. London: Prentice Hall, 1994.   
A fairly thorough and well illustrated discussion of holography on the level of an advanced amateur preparing to undertake a serious hobby (no math). Lots of collateral information, such as how to make your own optical elements. Very British in its style and humor.

Unterseher, Hansen, and Schlesinger. Holography Handbook. Berkeley, CA: Ross Books, 1982.   
A folksy and often humorous guide for the serious hobbyist. It has many practical tips and detailed layouts for the display holographer. Well leavened with California funk, it is the “whole-holography catalog.” The book has just been reprinted. Copies can also be found at the MIT Museum and the Boston Museum of Science.

Handbook of Optical Holography. Edited by H. J. Caulfield. N.Y.: Academic Press, 1979.    
This collection of pieces contains widely differing styles and levels, many missing the goal of a truly useful handbook. Of particular interest will be:   
Chap. 9, Section l: (SAB) “Photographic Materials and Their Handling.” Pp. 349-366.

Smith, H.M., ed. “Holographic Recording Materials”. Topics in Applied Physics, no. 20 (1977). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.   
Excellent chapters on “Basic Principles”, “Silver Halide Materials”, “Dichromated Gelatin”, and “Photoresists”.

Also of Interest

Born, M., and E. Wolf. Principles of Optics. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1965 and later editions.    
THE reference for theoretical optics. Very tough sledding, even among professionals, but well worth a browsing or a search for definitive proofs (if you have a taste for that sort of thing).

Crenshaw, Melissa. “Hazards of Holographic Processing Chemicals.” In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Display Holography. Edited by T.H. Jeong. Illinois: Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, (July 1985).   
This supplements the general discussions of chemical safety in the course.

Heckman, Philip M. The Magic of Holography. New York: Atheneum, 1986.   
Probably the book to send when your kid sister or brother asks “what IS holography?”

Jeong, Tung H. A Study Guide on Holography (draft).   
AAAS “Study Guide on Contemporary Problems” Series. Washington D.C.: Amer. Ass’n Adv. Science,  1975.   
See also: The Optical Industry and System Purchasing Directory #26, Book l, pp. B337 et seq. (1980)   
Professor Jeong has been the foremost proponent of display holography as a physics teaching tool and of methods for teaching holography that are accessible to non-scientists.

Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Display Holography. Lake Forest, Illinois: Lake Forest College, July 1982.   
A marvelous collection of papers from across the spectrum of artistic, technical, research and related efforts.

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Display Holography. Lake Forest, Illinois: Lake Forest College, July 1985.   
A thicker volume than #1, and generally meatier papers. This should be on every holographer’s reference shelf.

Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Display Holography. Lake Forest, Illinois: Lake Forest College, July 1988.   
The next report of this important series of conferences.

Jeong, T. H., and F. E. Lodge. Holography Using a Helium-Neon Laser. N.J.: Metrologic Instruments, 1978.   
An introductory guide for the small-scale laboratory equipment and (second rate) lasers made by Metrologic but interesting reading.

Kasper, Joseph E., and Steven A. Feller. The Hologram Book. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985.   
A very good physical explanation of holography at a layman’s level, though based on the “tiny mirrors” model (a favorite of Prof. Jeong).

McCrickerd, J. T. Projects in Holography. , Fountain Valley, CA: Newport Corporation, 1982.   
A beautifully printed but overly compacted guide to simple holography setups, sponsored by the best known manufacturer of holographic hardware.

McNair, Don. How To Make Holograms. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Books, 1983.   
A real “how to build your own shop” narrative, well illustrated, in the “Popular Mechanics” tradition. PVC pipe optics holders in a sand table is the result, and they work. Nice interviews with holographers, and photos of their work.

Schawlow, A. L., ed. Lasers and Light: Readings from Scientific American. San Francisco, CA : W. H. Freeman, 1970.   
Especially: Leith, and Upatnieks. “Photography by Laser.” June 1965, Pp. 339 and Pennington, K. Advances in Holography. Feb. 1968, pp. 351.   
(See also Leith, E. “White-Light Holography” In Scientific American. (October 1976)).

Webb, R. H. Elementary Wave Optics. New York: Academic Press, 1969.   
A model treatment of wave (physical) optics using nothing beyond “shop math” (algebra, geometry and trigonometry). Occasionally cumbersome, but it covers the important physical phenomena.

Course Info

As Taught In
Spring 2003