Readings

Some readings are assigned in the required textbook

Buy at Amazon Adams, Gordon, and Cindy Williams. Buying National Security: How America Plans and Pays for Its Global Role and Safety at Home. New York: Routledge, 2010. ISBN: 9780415954402.

Slide presentations were made in four of the weeks and are included in the table below.

WEEK # TOPICS READINGS
1 Introduction — Budgets as Policy

Buying National Security (required course textbook)
Read chapter 1. "Money is Policy."

Buy at Amazon Schick, Allen. The Federal Budget: Politics, Policy, Process. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780815777359.
Read chapter 1: Conflict and Resolution in Federal Budgeting, pp. 1-5.

Buy at Amazon Wildavsky, Aaron B., and Naomi Caiden. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process. New York: Longman, 2003. ISBN: 9780321159670.
Read the forward.

Buy at Amazon Enthoven, Alain C., and K. W. Smith. How Much Is Enough?: Shaping the Defense Program, 1961-1969. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp, 2005. ISBN: 9780833038265.
Read the forward.

2 National Security Budgets in Context

Slide presentation: U.S. National Security Budgets in Context (PDF)

Congressional Budget Office. "The Long-Term Budget Outlook." June 2010 (Revised August 2010).
Read the summary and chapter 1: "The Long-Term Outlook for the Federal Budget." (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.2MB)

Congressional Budget Office. "Budget and Economic Outlook." January 2010, Read the Summary, pp. xi to xv. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.9MB)

Congressional Budget Office. "An Analysis of the President's Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal Year 2011." March 2010.
Read chapter 1. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.6MB)

Buy at Amazon Ippolito, Dennis S. Why Budgets Matter: Budget Policy and American Politics. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780271022598.
Read chapter 1: Perspectives on Budget Policy.

Historical Tables, Budget of the U.S. Government, FY 2011: Visit the OMB's budget Web site and pull up the Historical Tables
Familiarize yourself with the list of tables available, and view Table 8.4, "Outlays by Budget Enforcement Act Category as Percentages of GDP: 1962-2015."

3 Defense Budget Composition and Internal Pressures

Slide presentation: Defense Budget Composition and Internal Pressures. (PDF)

Daggett, Stephen. "Resourcing the National Defense Strategy." Statement before the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, November 18, 2009. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 4.8MB)

Congressional Budget Office. "Long-Term Implications of the Fiscal Year 2010 Defense Budget." January 2010.
Read pp. 1-33. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 2.1MB)

Harrison, Todd. "Analysis of the FY 2011 Defense Budget." Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments (CSBA), June 2010.
Read the executive summary and overview chapter, skim the rest.

Defense Comptroller's Green Book: visit the Comptroller's Web site for FY 2011 budget materials and from the web page that opens, pull down the Green Book for FY 2011. Familiarize yourself with the table of contents, and view Budget Authority history by appropriation title (Table 6-8).

4 Grand Strategy and Budgets

Posen, Barry R., and Andrew L. Ross. "Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategy." International Security, 21, no. 3 (Winter 1996/7).
Read pp. 3-51.
This article by Posen, Barry, and Andrew Ross is dated, but it offers the merit of looking side-by-side at four distinct grand strategies and discussing their potential costs. As you read the administration's documents, be sure to consider the budgetary implications of the strategies they put forth. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

National Security Strategy, May 2010 Read President Obama's transmittal letter and the overview section, and skim the rest. Consider which of the Posen and Ross grand strategies are reflected here. (PDF)

Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 2010.
Read the executive summary and introduction, and skim the rest. Consider which of the Posen and Ross grand strategies are reflected here. Also review what you know about U.S. budgets for national security, and consider which of the Posen and Ross grand strategies they might reflect. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 6.6MB)

Posen, Barry R. "The Case for Restraint." The American Interest, November-December 2007.

5 Planning and Budgeting for National Security

Slide presentation: Planning and Budgeting for Defense (PDF)

Buy at Amazon Wildavsky, Aaron B., and Naomi Caiden. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process. New York: Longman, 2003. ISBN: 9780321159670.
Review the foreword you read in Week #1.

Buy at Amazon Enthoven, Alain C., and K. W. Smith. How Much Is Enough?: Shaping the Defense Program, 1961-1969. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp, 2005. ISBN: 9780833038265.
Review the foreword you read in Week #1.

Readings on Buying National Security
Buying National Security (required course textbook)
Read chapter 5: "Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Execution in the Department of Defense." pp. 93-119 and endnotes pp. 287-291.

Buying National Security (required course textbook)
Read chapter 9: "Resource Allocation and Budgeting in Congress," pp. 193-220 and endnotes, pp. 305-308.

Hamilton, Lee. "Congress Only Tinkers On The Budget." 2005.

Readings on Assessment
Joyce, Philip G. "Linking Performance and Budgeting: Opportunities in the Federal Budget Process." (IBM Center for the Business of Government, 2004)

6 Spending for Military Pay and Benefits

Congressional Budget Office. The All-Volunteer Military: Issues and Performance. July 2007, pp. 1-37. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.2MB)

Kosiak, Steven M. Introduction and Chapter 4: Options for Managing Military Manpower in Military Manpower for the Long Haul. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessment, 2008.

Government Accountability Office. "Military Personnel: DOD Needs to Improve the Transparency and Reassess the Reasonableness, Appropriateness, Affordability, and Sustainability of Its Military Compensation," pp. 4-40. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Congressional Budget Office. "Evaluating Military Compensation." June 2007, pp. 1-28. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 2.8MB)

7 Budgets to Modernize the Force

Review material from Week #3: Daggett, Stephen. "Resourcing the National Defense Strategy." Statement before the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, November 18, 2009.
Read pp. 9-15. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF – 4.8MB)

Review material from Week #3 in Congressional Budget Office. "Long-Term Implications of the Fiscal Year 2010 Defense Budget." January 2010.
Read pp. 19-33. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 2.1MB)

Buy at Amazon Wildavsky, Aaron B., and Naomi Caiden. The New Politics of the Budgetary Process. New York: Longman, 2003. ISBN: 9780321159670.
Read the acquisitions section of chapter 8. (pp. 165-170)

Sullivan, Michael J. Defense Acquisitions: DOD Must Balance Its Needs with Available Resources and Follow an Incremental Approach to Acquiring Weapon Systems, GAO-09-431T, Washington, DC: GAO, March 3, 2009, pp. 1-11. (PDF)

Kreisher, Otto. "Report: Industry May Be Unable To Meet Military's Needs." National Journal's CongressDailyAM, 14 (July 2009).

Readings on how to get innovation
Kugler, Richard L., and Hans Binnendijk. "Chapter 3: Choosing a Strategy." in Transforming America's Military  [Preview with Google Books]

Case Study on U.S. Fighter Programs
Congressional Budget Office. Alternatives for Modernizing U.S. Fighter Forces (May 2009), summary, pp. ix-xxii. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.8MB)

Gertler, Jeremiah. Congressional Research Service. "F-35 Alternate Engine Program: Background and Issues for Congress." March 22, 2010.
Read, pp. 1-17. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

8 Budgets for Operation and Maintenance

Review material from Week #3: Daggett, Stephen. "Resourcing the National Defense Strategy." Statement before the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. House of Representatives, November 18, 2009.
Read pp. 6-9. Testimony

Review material from Week #3 in Congressional Budget Office. "Long-Term Implications of the Fiscal Year 2010 Defense Budget." January 2010.
Read pp. 1-33, and 5-17. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 2.1MB)

Williams, Cindy. "The U.S. Defense Budget." Statement before the Senate Budget Committee, February 23, 2010.
Read pp. 1-11. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Government Accountability Office. "Defense Budget: Trends in Operation and Maintenance Costs and Support Services Contracting." May 2007.
Read pp. 1-33. (PDF)

Government Accountability Office. Military Base Realignments and Closures: DOD faces Challenges in Implementing on Time and is not Consistently Updating Savings Estimates. January 2009.
Read pp. 1-30. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.2MB)

9 Cost of the War in Iraq

Belasco, Amy. "The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11." Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, September 28, 2009.
Read pp. 1-37, and 44-49. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Tanielian, Terri, and Lisa H. Jaycox, eds. Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery. Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Coproration, 2008.
Read the summary.

Congressional Budget Office. Replacing and Repairing Equipment Used in Iraq and Afghanistan: The Army's Reset Program. September, 2007.
Read the summary. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.2MB)

Singer, Peter W. "Outsourcing the Fight." June, 2008.

Congressional Budget Office. Contractors' Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq. Washington, DC: CBO, August 2008.
Read pp. 1, and 6-20. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Congressional Budget Office. "Analysis of the Growth in Funding for Operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Elsewhere in the War on Terrorism." Washington, DC: CBO. February 11, 2008. Letter to the Honorable Kent Conrad. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Congressional Budget Office. "CBO's Analysis of Scenarios for Funding the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq." Letter to the Honorable Spratt Jr, John M., January 21, 2010 (six pages). (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

10 Federal Spending for Homeland Security

Slide presentation: U.S. Budgets for_Homeland Security (PDF)

The White House. Analytical Perspectives volume of the FY 2011 budget.
Read section on Homeland Security in the chapter on Crosscutting Programs, pp. 379-386. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 3.6MB)

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Quadrennial Homeland Security Review (QHSR) Report. February 2010.
Read the executive summary and introduction, and skim the rest. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Buying National Security (required course textbook)
Read chapter 7. "Resource Allocation and Budgeting for Homeland Security," pp. 141-161, and endnotes pp. 296-298.

11 Federal Spending for Diplomacy and Foreign Aid

Summary and highlights: International Affairs Function 150, FY 2011 Budget Request Examine the Table of Contents plus the text and tables on pages 1-9 to get an overview of U.S. International affairs spending. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF - 1.4MB)

Gordon, Adams. "The Politics of National Security Budgets." Stanley Foundation Policy Analysis Brief February 2007. (This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader.PDF)

Buying National Security (required course textbook)
Read chapter 2. "Resource Planning for International Affairs and State Operations," pp. 8-31, and endnotes pp. 255-264.

Secretaries of State Henry Kissinger, George Shultz, James Baker, Lawrence Eagleburger, Warren Christopher, Madeleine Albright, Colin Powell, and Condoleezza Rice. "U.S. Must Deploy more Foreign Diplomacy Personnel." Politico, June 25, 2009.

12 Presentation of Alternative National Security Plans No Readings