Wherever "S&S" is mentioned below, it refers to: Singleton, R. A., Jr., and Bruce C. Straits. Approaches to Social Research. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN: 0195105257.

Course readings (See additional books below):
1 Introduction and the Research Process: Ideas and Evidence Bailyn, Lotte. "Research as a cognitive process." Quality and Quantity 11 (1977): 97-117.

S&S, Chapter 4

Ragin, Charles. Constructing Social Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 1994, chapter 3. ISBN: 0803990219.
2 What is Theory

Making Sense of Data
Lave, Charles A., and James G. March. "An Introduction to Speculation" and "The Evaluation of Speculations" .  Chapters 2 and 3 in An Introduction to Models in the Social Sciences. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1993. ISBN: 0819183814.

Merton, Robert K. "On Sociological Theories of the Middle Range." In Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: The Free Press, 1968, pp. 39-53. ISBN: 0029211301.

Hedström, Peter, and Richard Swedberg. "Social Mechanisms: An Introductory Essay." In Social Mechanisms: An Analytical Approach to Social Theory. Edited by Peter Hedström, and Richard Swedberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 1-31. ISBN: 0521596874.

Discussion of Exercise
3 Research Ethics

Introduction to the Library
Examine the MIT policies and procedures for research on human subjects and determine what you will have to do to comply with MIT policies in order to carry out your research project.

Kifner, John. "Scholar Sets Off Gastronomic False Alarm." New York Times, September 8, 2001.

Milgram, Stanley. "Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority." Human Relations 18 (1965): 57-75.

Scarr, Sandra. "Race and Gender as Psychological Variables: Social and Ethical Issues." American Psychologist 43 (1988): 56-59.

S&S, Chapter 17
4 Logic of Experimentation and Measurement, Validity, and Reliability S&S, Chapters 5 and 7

Zelditch, Morris. "Can you really study an army in a laboratory?" In A Sociological Reader on Complex Organizations. Edited by Amitai Etzioni. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1961, pp. 528-539. ISBN: 0030474612.

Kray, L. J., L. Thompson, and A. Galinsky. "Battle of the sexes: Gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80 (2001): 942-958.

Cohen, Bernard. "Tying Concepts to Observations." Chapter 8 in Developing Sociological Knowledge. 1989. ISBN: 0830411232.

Becker, Howard S. "Concepts." Chapter 4 in Tricks of the Trade: How to Think About Your Research While You're Doing It. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. ISBN: 0226041239.
5 Quasi-Experiments

Project Proposals
Judd, Charles M., Eliot R. Smith, and Louise H. Kidder. Research Methods in Social Relations. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991, pp. 101-123. ISBN: 0030311497.

Goldthorpe, John H. "Causation, Statistics & Sociology." European Sociological Review 17 (2001): 1-20.

Bendersky, Corrine. "Dispute resolution system effectiveness: complementarities and mediators." Unpublished manuscript, UCLA, 2003.
6 Elaboration: Causality and Causal Inference Agresti, Alan, and Barbara Finlay. Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences. San Francisco: Dellen Publishing, 1986, pp. 292-305. ISBN: 0023011203 .

Baron, Reuben M., and David A. Kenny. "The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (1986): 1173-1182.

Assignment I

Note: Heavy assignment coming up - good to start this week


8 Units and Levels of Analysis

Sampling Selection Issues

Common Problems and Pitfalls
Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1997, pp. 92-104. ISBN: 053450468X.

S&S, Chapter 6

Berk, Richard A. "An Introduction to Sample Selection Bias in Sociological Data." American Sociological Review 48 (1983): 386-398.

Lieberson, Stanley. "Selectivity." Chapter 2 in Making it Count. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985. ISBN: 0520053508.

Kolata, Gina. "Hormone Studies: What Went Wrong?" New York Times, April 22, 2003.

King, Gary, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba. "Understanding What to Avoid." Chapter 5 in Designing Social Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. ISBN: 0691034710.

Rousseau, Denise. "Issues of Level in Organizational Research." Research in Organizational Behavior 7 (1985): 1-37.
9 Positivism and Non - Positivism

Making a Contribution
Popper, Karl R. "A Survey of Some Fundamental Problems." Chapter 1 in The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Science Editions, Inc., 1961.

Dougherty, Deborah. "Building Grounded Theory: Some Principles and Practices." In The Blackwell Companion to Organizations. Edited by J. A. C. Baum. Blackwell Publishers, 2002, pp. 849-867. ISBN: 0631216944.

McGrath, Joseph E., Janie R. Kelly, and Jean E. Rhodes. "A feminist perspective on research methodology: Some metatheoretical issues, contrasts, and choices." Chapter 2 in Gender Issues in Contemporary Society. Edited by S. Oskamp, and M. Costanzo. Sage, 1993. ISBN: 0803952295.

McGrath, Joseph E., Joanne Martin, and Richard A. Kulka. "Some quasi-rules for making judgment calls in research." Chapter 4 in Judgment Calls in Research. Edited by J. E. McGrath, J. Martin, and R. A. Kulka. Sage, 1982. ISBN: 0803918747.

Wagner, David G., and Joseph Berger. "Do Sociological Theories Grow?" American Journal of Sociology 90 (1985): 697-728.
10 Project Updates

11 Getting it Done: Issues in Doing It

Stinchcombe, Arthur L., and Richard Ofshe. "On Journal Editing as a Probabilistic Process." The American Sociologist 4 (1969): 116-117.

Stinchcombe, Arthur L. "On Getting 'Hung-Up' and Other Assorted Illnesses." In Stratification and Organization. Edited by A. L. Stinchcombe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986, pp. 271-281. ISBN: 0521325889.

Becker, Howard S. "Persona and Authority." Chapter 2 in Writing for Social Scientists. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. ISBN: 0226041085.

Buchanan, David, et. al. "Getting in, getting on, getting out, and getting back." In Doing Research in Organizations. Edited by A. Bryman. Routledge, 1988, pp. 53-67. ISBN: 0415002583.
12 Project Presentations  

Additional Books

King, Gary, Robert O. Keohane, and Sidney Verba. Designing Social Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
A useful book on some tricky issues in research design.

Miller, D. C. Handbook of Research Design and Social Measurement. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 1983.
A useful compendium of information on research, including methods of data collection, statistics, available scales and measures, sources of funding, publication outlets, etc.

Loether, H. J., and D. G. McTavish. Descriptive Statistics for Sociologists: An Introduction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1974.
A wonderful book that goes into the logic of describing data, with one variable, two variables, and three or more variables. Gives lucid descriptions of the various measures available and when and how they should be used.

Abelson, R. P. Statistics as Principled Argument. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995.
An unusual book that does not go into statistical techniques but gives a wonderful way of understanding the logic of statistical testing and its use in the research process.

Robinson, J. P., P. R. Shaver, L. S. Wrightman, and F. M. Andrews. Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. San Diego: Academic Press, 1991.
A classic compendium of scales and measures used in these areas, including some review essays. There are also earlier volumes by the same first author on political attitudes and occupational attitudes and characteristics, but they are fairly old.

Miles, M. B., and A. M. Huberman. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1994.
A classic and often used source for qualitative analysis.

See also Bickman, L. J., and D. J. Rog, eds. Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1998.
A useful compendium of articles of all kinds of research methods.