WEEK #TOPICSreadings
I. Understanding Civil Society
2Civil Society, Social Movements, and NGOs

Mathews, Jessica T. "Power Shift." Foreign Affairs 76, no. 1 (1997): 50-66.

Kaldor, Mary. "The Idea of a Global Civil Society." International Affairs 79, no. 3 (2003): 583-593.

Rieff, David, and Michael Clough. "Civil Society and the Future of the Nation-State: Two Views." The Nation 268, no. 7 (1999): 11-16.

Buy at Amazon Clark, John. World's Apart: Civil Society and the Battle for Ethical Globalization. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2003, pp. 91-128. ISBN: 156549167X.

Buy at Amazon Kriesberg, Louis. "Social Movements and Global Transformation." In Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics: Solidarity Beyond the State. Edited by J. Smith, C. Chatfield, and R. Pugnucco. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997. ISBN: 0815627432.


Buy at Amazon Chatfield, Charles. "Intergovernmental and Nongovernmental Associations to 1945." In Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics: Solidarity Beyond the State. Edited by J. Smith, C. Chatfield, and R. Pugnucco. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997, pp. 19-41. ISBN: 0815627432.

3Accountability and Legitimacy of NGOs

Buy at Amazon Edwards, Michael, and David Hulme. "NGO Performance and Accountability: Introduction and Overview." In Earthscan Reader on NGO Management. Edited by Michael Edwards and Alan Fowler. London, UK: Earthscan, 2002, pp. 187-203. ISBN: 1853838489.

Wapner, Paul. "Defending Accountability in NGOs." Chicago Journal of International Law 3, no. 1 (2002): 197-205.

Buy at Amazon Sikkink, Kathryn. "Restructuring World Politics: The Limits and Asymmetries of Soft Power." In Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks, and Norms. Edited by S. Khagram, J. V. Riker, and K. Sikkink. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2002, pp. 301-318. ISBN: 0816639078.

Slim, Hugo. "By What Authority? The Legitimacy and Accountability of Non-governmental Organisations." The International Council on Human Rights Policy International Meeting on Global Trends and Human Rights - Before and after September 11, Geneva, January 10-12, 2002.
Available at: The Global Development Research Center.

II. Environmental Actors in International and Domestic Arenas
4Transnational Environmental Actors and Activism

Wapner, Paul. "Politics Beyond the State: Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics." World Politics 47, no. 3 (1995): 311-340.

Tamiotti, Ludivine, and Matthias Finger. "Environmental Organizations: Changing Roles and Functions in Global Politics." Global Environmental Politics 1, no. 1 (2001): 56-76.

Buy at Amazon Frank, John David, Ann Hironaka, John W. Meyer, Evan Schofer, and Nancy Brandon Tuma. "The Rationalization and Organization of Nature in World Culture." In Constructing World Culture: International Non-Governmental Organizations since 1875. Edited by J. Boli and G. N. Thomas. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999, pp. 81-99. ISBN: 0804734224.

Buy at Amazon Smith, Jackie, Ron Pugnucco, and Charles Chatfield. "Social Movements and World Politics: A Theoretical Perspective." In Transnational Social Movements and Global Politics: Solidarity Beyond the State. Edited by J. Smith, C. Chatfield, and R. Pugnucco. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997, pp. 59-80. ISBN: 0815627432.

5Transnational Networks and Diffusion

Buy at Amazon Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. Chapters 1 and 4 in Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998. ISBN: 0801484561.

Rodrigues, Maria G. M. "Advocating for the Environment: Local Dimensions of Transnational Networks." Environment 46, no. 2 (2004): 14-25.

Rohrschneiger, Robert, and Russell J. Dalton. "A Global Network? Transnational Cooperation Among Environmental Groups." The Journal of Politics 64, no. 2 (2002): 510-533.

Buy at Amazon Princen, Thomas. "Ivory, Conservation, and Environmental Transnational Coalitions." In Bringing Transnational Relations Back In: Non-State Actors, Domestic Structures, and International Relations. Edited by T. Risse-Kappen. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 227-256. ISBN: 0521484413.

Caniglia, Beth Schefer. "Elite Alliances and Environmental TSMO Networks." Mobilization: An International Journal 6, no. 1 (2001).

Reimann, Kim D. "Building Networks from the Outside In: International Movements, Japanese NGOs, and the Kyoto Climate Change Conference." Mobilization 6, no. 1 (2001): 69-82.

6Resources and NGO Capacity, Agendas, and Activism

Buy at Amazon McAdam, Doug. "On the International Origins of Domestic Political Opportunities." In Social Movements and American Political Institutions. Edited by Anne N. Costain and Andrew S. McFarland. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998, pp. 251-267. ISBN: 0847683583.

Buy at Amazon Snow, David A., and Robert D. Benford. "Alternative Types of Cross-National Diffusion in the Social Movement Arena." In Social Movements in a Globalizing World. Edited by Donatella della Porta, Hanspeter Kriesi, and Dieter Rucht. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN: 0312219385.

Carmin, JoAnn, and Barbara Hicks. "International Triggering Events, Transnational Networks, and the Development of the Czech and Polish Environmental Movements." Mobilization 7, no. 3 (2002): 305-324.

Read one of the following articles

Hicks, Barbara. "Setting Agendas and Shaping Activism: EU Influence on Central European Environmental Movements." Environmental Politics 13, no. 1 (2004): 216-233.

Lahusen, Christian. "Joining the Cocktail Circuit: SMOs at the European Union." Mobilization 9, no. 1 (2004): 55-71.

Read one of the following articles

Crotty, Jo. "Managing Civil Society: Democratisation and the Environmental Movement in a Russian Region." Communist and Post-Communist Studies 36 (2003): 489-508.

Cellarius, Barbara, A., and Caedmon Staddon. "Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations, Civil Society and Democratization in Bulgaria." East European Politics and Societies 16, no. 1 (2002): 182-222.

7Determinants of Strategies and Tactics

Carmin, JoAnn, and Deborah B. Balser. "Selecting Repertoires of Action in Environmental Movement Organizations: An Interpretive Approach." Organization & Environment 15, no. 4 (2002): 365-388.

Dalton, Russell J., Steve Recchia, and Robert Rohrschneider. "The Environmental Movement and the Modes of Political Action." Comparative Political Studies 36, no. 7 (2003): 743-771.

Andrews, Kenneth, and Bob Edwards. "The Structure of Local Environmentalism." Mobilization 10, no. 2 (2005). (Forthcoming.)


Richards, J. P., and J Heard. "European Environmental NGOs: Issues, Resources and Strategies in Marine Campaigns." Environmental Politics 14, no. 1 (2005): 23-41.

III. Tactics, Targets, and Impacts of Environmental NGOs
8International Arenas of Environmental Activism

Mason, Michael. "Representing Transnational Environmental Interests: New Opportunities for Non-Governmental Organisation Access within the World Trade Organisation?" Environmental Politics 13, no. 3 (2004): 566-589.

Alger, Chadwick. "The Emerging Roles of NGOs in the UN system: From Article 71 to a People's Millennium Assembly." Global Governance 8, no. 1 (2002).

Raustiala, Kal. "States, NGOs, and International Environmental Institutions." International Studies Quarterly 41 (1997): 719-740.

Read one of the following

Betsill, Michele M., and Elisabeth Corell. "NGO Influence in International Environmental Negotiations: A Framework for Analysis." Global Environmental Politics 1, no. 4 (2001): 65-85.

Gulbrandsen, Lars H., and Steinar Andresen. "NGO Influence in the Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol: Compliance, Flexibility Mechanisms, and Sinks." Global Environmental Politics 4, no. 4 (2004): 54-75.

9State-NGO Relations

Kitschelt, Herbert. "Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies." British Journal of Political Science 16, no. 1 (1986): 57-85.

Singleton, Sara. "Collaborative Environmental Planning in the American West: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly." Environmental Politics 11, no. 3 (2002): 54-75.

Ho, Peter. "Greening With Conflict? Environmentalism, NGOs and Civil Society in China." Development and Change 32 (2001): 893-921.

Hallstrom, Lars. "Eurocratising Enlargement? EU Elites and NGO Participation in East Central European Environmental Policy." Environmental Politics 13, no. 1 (2004): 175-193.

10Corporate Opponents and Partners

Newell, Peter. "Campaigning for Corporate Change: Global Citizen Action on the Environment." In Global Citizen Action. Edited by M. Edwards and J. Gaventa. London, UK: Lynne-Reiner, 2001, pp 189-201.

Rondinelli, Dennis A., and Ted London. "How Corporations and Environmental Groups Cooperate: Assessing Cross-Sector Alliances and Collaborations." Academy of Management Executive 17, no. 1 (2003): 61-76.

Sasser, Erika N., Aseem Prakash, Benjamin Cashore, and Graeme Auld. "Direct Targeting as an NGO Political Strategy: Examining Private Authority Regimes in the Forestry Sector." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, Atlanta, GA, 2004.

Doh, J. P., and Guay, T. R. "Globalization and Corporate Social Responsibility: How Nongovernmental Organizations Influence Labor and Environmental Codes of Conduct." Management International Review 44, no. 3: 7-30. (forthcoming)

Meyerson, Debra E. "The Tempered Radicals: How Employees Push Their Companies - Little by Little - to be More Socially Responsible." Stanford Social Innovation Review (Fall 2004): 14-23. (PDF)

11Local Environmental Action

O'Rourke, Dara, and Gregg Macy. "Community Environmental Policing: Assessing New Strategies of Public Participation in Environmental Regulation." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 22, no. 3 (2003): 383-414.

Weber, Edward P. "A New Vanguard for the Environment: Grass-Roots Ecosystem Management as a New Environmental Movement." Society & Natural Resources 13, no. 3 (2000): 237-259.

Fisher, Dana R., and Jessica F. Green. "Understanding Disenfranchisement: Civil Society and Developing Countries' Influence and Participation in Global Governance for Sustainable Development." Global Environmental Politics 4, no. 3 (2004): 65-85.

Carmin, JoAnn, Barbara Hicks, and Andreas Beckmann. "Leveraging Local Action: Grassroots Initiatives and Transnational Collaboration in the Formation of the White Carpathian Euroregion." International Sociology 18, no. 4 (2003): 703-725.

Shaw, Karena. "The Global/Local Politics of the Great Bear Rainforest." Environmental Politics 13, no. 2 (2004): 373-392.

Coban, Akyut. "Community-based Ecological Resistance: The Bergama Movement in Turkey." Environmental Politics 13, no. 2 (2003): 438-460.

IV. Conclusion
12Conclusion and Wrap-up