Required Texts:

[COH] = Buy at Amazon Cohen, Steven. Understanding Environmental Policy. Columbia University Press, 2014. ISBN: 9780231167758.

[HOW] = Buy at Amazon Howlett, Michael, Michael Ramesh, and Anthony Perl. Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. 3rd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780195428025.

[JAR] = Buy at Amazon Des Jardins, Joseph. Environmental Ethics: An Introduction to Environmental Philosphy. 4th ed. Wadsworth Publishing, 2006. ISBN: 9780534520847.

[SUS] = Buy at Amazon Susskind, Lawrence E., and Jeffrey L. Cruikshank. Breaking Roberts Rules: The New Way to Run Your Meeting, Build Consensus, and Get Results. Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN: 9780195308365.


Unit 1: Federal Environmental Policy-Making

1 Introduction

No readings

2 Introduction to Unit 1

[COH] Pages 3-46.

Optional Reading

Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN: 9781107569782.

3 The Policy-Making Process

[HOW] Chapter 4 "Agenda Setting", Chapter 5 "Policy Formulation", Chapter 6 "Public Policy Decision-Making"

4 Policy Evaluation

[HOW] Chapter 8 "Policy Evaluation"

5 Comparative Policy Analysis

Latacz‐Lohmann, Uwe, and Ian Hodge. "European Agri‐Environmental Policy for the 21st Century." Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 47, no. 1 (2003): 123-139.

Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Desai, Uday. Environmental Politics and Policy in Industrialized Countries. MIT Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780262042109.

Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon Steinberg, Paul F. Environmental Leadership in Developing Countries: Transnational Relations and Biodiversity Policy in Costa Rica and Bolivia. MIT Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780262692663.

Optional Reading

Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Keeley, James, and Ian Scoones. Understanding Environmental Policy Processes: Cases from Africa. Routledge, 2014. ISBN: 9781853839757.

6 A Theory of Environmental Planning and Policy-Making

Buy at Amazon Susskind, Larry. "The Environment and Environmentalism." Pages 74-81 in Birch, Eugenie, Gary Hack, Paul Sedway, and Mitchell Silver. Local Planning: Contemporary Principles and Practice. ICMA Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780873261487.

Walters, Carl J., and Crawford Stanley Holling. "Large‐Scale Management Experiments and Learning by Doing." Ecology 71, no. 6 (1990): 2060-2068.


Unit 2: Environmental Ethics and The Environmental Policy Debate

7 Environmental Ethics

[JAR] Chapter 2 "Ethical Theory and the Environment" and Chapter 12 "Pluralism, Pragmatism, and Sustainability."

8 Utilitarianism vs. Deep Ecology

[JAR] Chapter 3 "Ethics and Economics", Chapter 5 "Responsibilities to the Natural World", Chapter 6 "Biocentric Ethics and the Inherent Value of Life", Chapter 9 "Deep Ecology."

Optional Reading

Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Clapp, Jennifer, and Peter Dauvergne. Paths to a Green World: The Political Economy of the Global Environment. MIT Press, 2011. ISBN: 9780262515825.

9 Sustainability vs. Economic Growth

Buy at Amazon Introduction in Daly, Herman E. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Beacon Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780807047095.

The Sustainable Scale Project.

Bartlett, Albert A. "Reflections on Sustainability, Population Growth, and the Environment." Population and Environment 16, no. 1 (1994): 5-35.

10 Scientific Expertise vs. Indigenous Knowledge

Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Coburn, Jason. Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice. MIT Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780262033336.

Bäckstrand, Karin. "Civic Science for Sustainability: Reframing the Role of Experts, Policy-Makers and Citizens in Environmental Governance." Global Environmental Politics 3, no. 4 (2003): 24-41.

Optional Reading

Buy at Amazon Chapters 4 and 8 in Fischer, Frank. Citizens, Experts, and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge. Duke University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780822326229.


Unit 3: Environmental Planning Techniques

11 Environmental Analysis: Science, Policy, and Politics in Environmental Decision-Making

Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Layzer, Judith A. The Environmental Case: Translating Values into Policy. CQ Press, 2015. ISBN: 9781452239897.

Jasanoff, Sheila. "STS and Public Policy: Getting Beyond Deconstruction." Science, Technology and Society 4, no. 1 (1999): 59-72.

Buy at Amazon Skim Chapter 3, read Chapter 4 in Susskind, Lawrence, Ravi K. Jain, and Andrew O. Martyniuk. Better Environmental Policy Studies: How to Design and Conduct More Effective Analyses. Island Press, 2001. ISBN: 9781559638715.

12 Environmental Impact Assessment

Susskind, Lawrence E., and Louise Dunlap. "The Importance of Non-Objective Judgments in Environmental Impact Assessments." Environmental Impact Assessment Review 2, no. 4 (1981): 335-366.

Chapter 2 in Momtaz, Salim, and SM Zobaidul Kabir. Evaluating Environmental and Social Impact Assessment in Developing Countries. Elsevier, 2013.

Optional Reading

O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran. "Effectiveness in Social Impact Assessment: Aboriginal Peoples and Resource Development in Australia." Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 27, no. 2 (2009): 95-110.

Jha-Thakur, Urmila, Paola Gazzola, Deborah Peel, Thomas B. Fischer, and Sue Kidd. "Effectiveness of Stategic Environmental Assessment - The Significance of Learning." Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 27, no. 2 (2009): 133-144.

van Buuren, Arwin, and Sibout Nooteboom. "Evaluating Strategic Environmental Assessment in The Netherlands: Content, Process and Procedure as Indissoluble Criteria for Effectiveness." Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 27, no. 2 (2009): 145-154.

Therivel, Riki, Gemma Christian, Claire Craig, Russell Grinham, David Mackins, James Smith, Terry Sneller, Richard Turner, Dee Walker, and Motoko Yamane. "Sustainability-Focused Impact Assessment: English Experiences." Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 27, no. 2 (2009): 155-168.

13 Cost-Benefit Analysis

Buy at Amazon Chapter 2 in Sagoff, Mark. The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the Environment. Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN: 9780521687133.

Buy at Amazon "Executive Summary", "Box 3.1", and Chapter 18 in Pearce, David, Giles Atkinson, and Susana Mourato. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment: Recent Developments. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2006. ISBN: 9789264010048.

Buy at MIT Press Buy at Amazon Section E (pages 147-169) in Ashford, Nicholas Askounes, and Charles C. Caldart. Environmental Law, Policy, and Economics: Reclaiming the Environmental Agenda. MIT Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780262012386.

Optional Reading

Kysar, Douglas A. "Climate Change, Cultural Transformation, and Comprehensive Rationality." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review. 31 (2004): 555.

Buy at Amazon Tietenberg, Thomas. "Economic Instruments for Environmental Regulation" in Robert Stavins (ed). Economics of the Environment. W.W. Norton & Co. (2000). ISBN: 9780393913408.

14 Risk Assessment

European Environment Agency. "Environmental Issue Report No. 4." Environmental Risk Assessment - Approaches, Experiences and Information Sources. Denmark (1998).

Heston, Alan W., Howard Kunreuther, Paul Slovic, Neil A. Weine. "Challenges in Risk Assessment and Risk Management." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 545, May (1996): 8-13.

Buy at Amazon Chapter 4 "Negotiating Risk, Expertise, and Near-Advocacy" in Callison, Candis. How Climate Change Comes to Matter: the Communal Life of Facts. Duke University Press, 2014. ISBN: 9780822357872.

Optional Reading

Environmental Protection Agency. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment." (PDF) EPA/630/R-95/002F. Risk Assessment Forum. Washington, D.C.: 1998. Pages 1-124.

Buy at Amazon Chapters 1 and 2 in Cather, David A. and Mark S. Dorfman. Introduction to Risk Management and Insurance. Prentice Hall (2007). ISBN: 9780131394124.

Renn, Ortwin. "Perception of Risks." The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurace 29, no. 1 (January 2004): 102-114.

Buy at Amazon Skim chapters 1-3 in Schwing, Richard C., and Walter A. Albers. Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe is Safe Enough?. Springer, 1980. ISBN: 9780306405549.

15 Humboldt Game Simulation Role Play

No readings

16 Ecosystem Services Analysis

Costanza, Robert, Rudolf de Groot, Paul Sutton, Sander van der Ploeg, Sharolyn J. Anderson, Ida Kubiszewski, Stephen Farber, and R. Kerry Turner. "Changes in the Global Value of Ecosystem Services." Global Environmental Change 26 (2014): 152-158.

Ludwig, Donald. "Limitations of Economic Valuation of Ecosystems." Ecosystems 3, no. 1 (2000): 31-35.

Global Footprint Network. "World Footprint." 2017.

Gómez-Baggethun, Erik, Rudolf De Groot, Pedro L. Lomas, and Carlos Montes. "The History of Ecosystem Services in Economic Theory and Practice: From Early Notions to Markets and Payment Schemes." Ecological Economics 69, no. 6 (2010): 1209-1218.

National Research Council. Chapters 2, 4 and 7 in "Valuing Ecosystem Services: Toward Better Environmental Decision-Making. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2004.

Optional Reading

Zimmer, Carl. "Putting a Price Tag on Nature's Defenses." The New York Times. June 5, 2014.

Polasky, Stephen, and Kathleen Segerson. "Integrating Ecology and Economics in the Study of Ecosystem Services: Some Lessons Learned." Annual Review of Resource Economics 1 (2009): pp. 409-434.

Buy at Amazon Simmons, Craig. "Ecological Footprint Analysis: A Useful Method for Exploring the Interaction Between Lifestyles and the Built Environment" in Deakin, Mark, Gordon Mitchell, Peter Nijkamp, and Ron Vreeker, eds. Sustainable Urban Development Routledge, 2007. ISBN: 9780415322171.

17 Simulation and Modeling

Sterman, John D. "A Skeptic’s Guide to Computer Models." Managing A Nation: The Microcomputer Software Catalog. Westview Press (1991): 209-229.

Costanza, Robert, and Matthias Ruth. "Using Dynamic Modeling to Scope Environmental Problems and Build Consensus." Environmental Management 22, no. 2 (1998): 183-195.

Doran, Jim. "Agent-Based Modelling of Ecosystems for Sustainable Resource Management." In Multi-Agent Systems and Applications, pp. 383-403. Springer, 2001.

Optional Reading

Law, Averill M. "How to Build Valid and Credible Simulation Models." (PDF) In Proceedings of the 40th Conference on Winter Simulation, pp. 39-47. Winter Simulation Conference, 2008.

18 Scenario Planning

Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership. "Puget Sound Future Scenarios." (PDF - 31MB) Prepared by the University of Washington Urban Ecology Research Lab. May 2008. Sections 3 and 4 are required, Section 5 is suggested.

Quay, Ray. "Anticipatory Governance: A Tool for Climate Change Adaptation." Journal of the American Planning Association 76, no. 4 (2010): 496-511.


Unit 4: Public Participation and Collaborative Decision-Making

19 Public Participation and Group Decision-Making

[SUS] Part 2: pp. 169-187.

"Spectrum of Processess for Collaboration and Consensus-Building in Public Decisions."

Larry Susskind et al. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The IAP2 Spectrum." (PDF) Undated.

Buy at Amazon Table: The Tasks of a Mediator, page 142-143 in Susskind, Lawrence, and Jeffrey L. Cruikshank. Breaking the Impasse: Consensual Approaches to Resolving Public Disputes. Basic Books, 1987. ISBN: 9780465007509.

Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Shapiro, Ian. The State of Democratic Theory. Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN: 9780691115474.

Optional Reading

Buy at Amazon Chapter 2 in in Susskind, Lawrence, and Jeffrey L. Cruikshank. Breaking the Impasse: Consensual Approaches to Resolving Public Disputes. Basic Books, 1987. ISBN: 9780465007509.

Fung, Archon. "Democratic Theory and Political Science: A Pragmatic Method of Constructive Engagement." American Political Science Review 101, no. 03 (2007): 443-458.

20 Public Participation Timelines

Environmental Protection Agency. "Public Participation Guide: Tools."

Table: A Review of Public Participation and Consultation in Abelson, Julia, Pierre-Gerlier Forest, John Eyles, Patricia Smith, Elisabeth Martin, and Francois-Pierre Gauvin. "Deliberations About Deliberative Methods: Issues in the Design and Evaluation of Public Participation Processes." Social Science & Medicine 57, no. 2 (2003): 239-251.

Jankowski, Piotr. "Towards Participatory Geographic Information Systems for Community-Based Environmental Decision Making." Journal of Environmental Management 90, no. 6 (2009): 1966-1971.

Drazkiewicz, Anna, Edward Challies, and Jens Newig. "Public Participation and Local Environmental Planning: Testing Factors Influencing Decision Quality and Implementation in Four Case Studies from Germany." Land Use Policy 46 (2015): 211-222.

Optional Reading

Luskin, Robert C., James S. Fishkin, and Dennis L. Plane. "Deliberative Polling and Policy Outcomes: Electric Utility Issues in Texas." In Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, vol. 4, p. 1999. 1999.

Lepore, Jill. "Politics and the New Machine." The New Yorker. November 16, 2015.

21 Collaborative Decision-Making

Innes, Judith E., and David E. Booher. "Consensus Building and Complex Adaptive Systems: A Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Planning." Journal of the American Planning Association 65, no. 4 (1999): 412-423.

Mandarano, Lynn A. "Evaluating Collaborative Environmental Planning Outputs and Outcomes: Restoring and Protecting Habitat and the New York—New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program." Journal of Planning Education and Research 27, no. 4 (2008): 456-468.

Optional Reading

Buy at Amazon Chapter 2, skim Chatper 3 in Wondolleck, Julia M., and Steven Lewis Yaffee. Making Collaboration Work: Lessons from Innovation in Natural Resource Managment. Island Press, 2000. ISBN: 9781559634625.

Day, J. C., Thomas I. Gunton, and Peter W. Williams. "Evaluating Collaborative Planning: the British Columbia Experience." Environments 31, no. 3 (2003): 1.

22 Consensus Building and Dispute Resolution

Susskind, Lawrence, and Connie Ozawa. "Mediated Negotiation in the Public Sector: The Planner as Mediator." Journal of Planning Education and Research 4, no. 1 (1984): 5-15.

Forester, John, and David Stitzel. "Beyond Neutrality." Negotiation Journal 5, no. 3 (1989): 251-264.

23 Politics, Power, and Theories of Collective Action

Buy at Amazon Chapters 2 and 6 in Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN: 9781107569782.

Hardin, Garrett. This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."The Tragedy of the Commons." (PDF - 2.1MB) Science 162, no. 3859 (1968): 1243-1248.

Buy at Amazon Pages 124-168 in Axelrod, Robert M. The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Nooks, 1984. ISBN: 9780465005642.

Macey, Gregg and Lawrence Susskind. Introduction in This resource may not render correctly in a screen reader."Using Dispute Resolution Techniques to Address Environmental Justice Concerns: Case Studies."(PDF - 1.4MB) Prepared by the Consensus Building Institute. 2003.

Optional Reading

Buy at Amazon Chapter 1 in Susskind, Lawrence, Paul Levy, and Jennifer Thomas-Larmer. Negotiating Environmental Agreements: How To Avoid Escalating Confrontation Needless Costs And Unnecessary Litigation. Island Press, 1999. ISBN: 9781559636339.