This course makes use of Athena, MIT’s UNIXbased computing environment. OCW does not provide access to this environment.
LEC #  TOPICS  LECTURE NOTES  NOTES, SUPPORTING FILES, AND LINKS 

1–2  Introduction: Problem formulation, algorithm development, algorithm implementation, and algorithm verification. Structure and documentation 
Lec #1 (PDF) Lec #2 (PDF) 
Lec #1Class introduction; overview of languages; program development. Lec #2Discussion of aspects of computers and their operation. An example is given of program development for a simple case of computing the area of a figure. Links that are in the notes for this lecture: The IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic Minor links for those interested: 
3–7  FORTRAN: “Formula Translation”. Program creation, compilation and linking, variables and parameters, flow control, subroutines and functions. Structure and documentation. Use of libraries, internal and external communication, and interaction with other languages. FORTRAN: implementation issues: compilation errors, segmentation violations, NotaNumber (NaN), Input/Output (IOSTAT) errors, Runtime errors. Transportable code, standard extensions. FORTRAN 90 differences and similarities to FORTRAN 77 
Lec #3 (PDF) Lec #4 (PDF) Lec #5 (PDF) Lec #6 (PDF) Lec #7 (PDF) 
Lec #3Started FORTRAN (Formula Translation). Went through the basic elements that make up this language. An online version of a FORTRAN 77 manual can be found here. In reading these notes, you should think about operations you want to do and what command or commands do you use to do that. The list on FORTRAN intrinsic functions can be found here. Other links to look at: The FORTRAN Programming Language Wikipedia Definition of FORTRAN Lec #4Continued with showing the elements of the FORTRAN and more detail on the typically encountered features of the language. Topics covered: subroutines and functions; intrinsic functions; constants and variables; input output with open/close, read/write, formats; character strings. The links in this lecture were to FORTRAN and intrinsic functions, which are given above. The programs poly_area.f (F) and vars.f (F) are also used. (To download programs, right click on link and “save link target as”. With onebutton mouse use <ctrl><click> on link). On Athena to use these programs: ssh –X linerva.mit.edu To use the f90 compiler on Athena, use add sunsoft. Other sources of information: Safari Book Online  O’Reilly series of books on programming (available with MIT certificate) FORTRAN Resources  useful link with lots of information on FORTRAN in its various forms Lec #5Continued with FORTRAN. Character strings, control statements if and do; other commands such as include, common, parameter. More programs will be developed in class including simple output and computing rootmeansquare scatter of randomly generated numbers. Lec #6Finish up FORTRAN. Compile, linking and runtime errors and miscellaneous topics. Practice with using the language. Lec #7Examines the changes that were made in FORTRAN90 with the introductions on more modern concepts in programming languages. 
8–11 
C for scientific uses. Representation of data through arrays, pointers, and data structures. Function calls, argument passing and scoping rules, IO, profiling, system calls, and signals C++ objects. Encapsulation and inheritance, polymorphic operators 
Lec #8 (PDF) Lec #9 (PDF) Lec #10 (PDF) Lec #11 (PDF) 
Lec #8Start of Clanguage programming. History, variables and executable statements. Basic C Lecture Basic C: C and FORTRAN 77 Syntax Basic C: New Features Lec #08 Exercises. Lec #9Continuation of C. Covering Examined Cpointer; file Input/Output and the routines for formatted reads and write; compiling C routines; the C preprocessor cpp; structures in C; memory management. Lec09_pnt.c (C) is demonstration of pointers Lec #10Finish structures and memory management in C. Start of C++. Inheritance and overloading in C++. C and C++ routines used in class launch.c (C) C++ zip files: ustring.zip (ZIP) (The ZIP file contains: 2 .h files, 1 .cc file, and 1 .txt file.) Lec #11Finish up of C++ looking at classes, inheritance and overloading. We will look more carefully at the code linked in Lec #10. Homework number 3 has been set. Example pieces of code for C and comparison to FORTRAN: C basics (PDF), area.c (C), hello.c (C) 
12–13 
Mathematica. What it is and what it can do; structure of Mathematica; symbols, exact numbers, and machine numbers; lists, vectors, and matrices Working with Mathematica: numerical calculations, symbolic calculations, and graphics. Importing and exporting information 
Lec #12 (PDF) Lec #13 (PDF) 
Lec #12Start of Mathematica. These lectures are accompanied by a Mathematica Notebook that shows example of concepts presented in the notes. Lec 12 NB (NB) Introductory screen casts from Wolfram: Use of the demonstrations site Lec #13Continuation of Mathematica. These lectures are accompanied by a Mathematica notebook that shows example of concepts presented in the notes. Lec 13 NB (NB) 
14–17 
MATLAB®. “Matrix Laboratory”. MATLAB syntax, workspace, variables. Script Mfiles, IO, control flow, debugging, and profiling tools. Objectoriented programming MATLAB applications, polynomials, interpolation, integration, differentiation, ODE. Graphics, 2D, 3D, Graphical User Interface (GUI) 
Lec #14 (PDF) Lec #15 (PDF) Lec #16 (PDF) Lec #17 (PDF) 
Lec #14MATLAB: introductory lecture on MATLAB introducing system, variable types, control and functions. The following MATLAB Mfiles are used in the lecture: Lec #15MATLAB: path command, variables, file IO and dialog boxes. The following Mfiles are used: Lec02_01_file.m (M) The data for these Mfiles can be found in MatData. A tar file with the data is TSeries.tar (TAR) (The TAR file contains: 10 .dat1 files, 10 .dat2 files, and 10 .dat3 files.) Lec #16MATLAB: graphics handles and animation of figures. The following Mfiles are used in class: Lec03_movie.m (M) Lec #17MATLAB: final class on GUI construction and use. The following Mfiles are used (along with the data from MatData: a tar file with the data is TSeries.tar (TAR) (The TAR file contains: 10 .dat1 files, 10 .dat2 files, and 10 .dat3 files.) Basic GUI layout: 
18–19  Python scripting language program 
Lec #18 (PDF) Lec #19 (PDF) 
Lec #18Python I: Python Language Basics Python Programming Language—Official Website Lec #19Python II: Python Advanced Usage 
20  Advanced graphics in MATLAB, 3D representation and exportable animations  Lec #20 (PDF) 
Lec #203D graphics in MATLAB. Examples are: Lec20_3D.m (M)

21  Ordinary differential equation (ODE) solutions used MATLAB and Mathematica  Lec #21 (PDF) 
Lec #21Solution to differential equations in Mathematica and MATLAB. Mathematic notebook: 12.010.Lec18_NDsolve.nb (NB) MATLAB solutions are: Lec21_ODE.m (M)

22–24 
Advanced Topics: Parallel computing with large memory and large numbers of CPUs Advanced topics: Parallel MATLAB Discussion of final projects Order of the presentations will be decided in the last class 
Lec #22Introduction of class project. Graphics formats and issues about vector and pixel based graphics. GMT graphics package for mapping applications Lec #23Class projects: graphics processor unit (GPU) processing. Statistics and random number generators. Mfile randtest.m (M) is implementation of an LCG random number generator. Lec #24Graphics: review of common graphics program. Graphics with spreadsheets, Kaleidagraph, Generic Mapping Tool (GMT). Numerical methods: introduction to numerical methods Statistical analysis tools including generation random variables and correlated random numbers The order of the class presentations will be decided in this class and posted after the class. 

Final Project Presentations 