12.109 | Fall 2005 | Undergraduate



Primary Texts

Hess, P. C. Origin of Igneous Rocks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. ISBN: 9780674644816.

Spear, F. S. Metamorphic Phase Equilibria and Pressure - Temperature - Time Paths. Chantilly, VA: Mineralogical Society of America, 1994. ISBN: 9780939950348.

Supplemental Reading Material

Bloss, F. D. An Introduction to the Methods of Optical Crystallography. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961.

Boggs, S., Jr. Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. New York, NY: MacMillan, 1992.

Boyd, F. R., et al. “Evidence for a 150-200-km thick Archaean lithosphere from diamond inclusion thermobarometry.” Geochim Cosmochim Acta 37 (1973): 2533-2546.

Compton, R. R. Manual of Field Geology. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1962.

Roeder, P. L., and R. F. Emslie. “Olivine-liquid equilibrium.” Contrib Mineral Petrol 29 (1970): 275-289.

Wood, B. J., and D. G. Fraser. Elementary Thermodynamics for Geologists. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1977.

The Microsoft® Powerpoint® lecture on optical mineralogy is an excellent primer on the physics of using a microscope in mineralogy.

See especially Microsoft® Powerpoint® presentation 3 for helpful information on twinning, cleavage, and more in thin sections.

Deer, W. A., R. A. Howie, and J. Zussman. An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Longman Scientific and Technical, 1992.

McKenzie, W. S., C. H. Donaldson, and C. Guilford. Atlas of Igneous Rocks and their Textures. New York, NY: Wiley, 1982.

McKenzie, W. S., and C. Guilford. Atlas of Rock-Forming Minerals in Thin Section. New York, NY: Wiley, 1979.

Nesse, W. D. Introduction to Optical Mineralogy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Troger, W. E. Optical Determination of Rock Forming Minerals. Part 1, E. Stuttgart, Deutschland: Schweizerbartische Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1979.

Williams, H., F. J. Turner, and C. M. Gilbert. Petrography, An Introduction to the Study of Rocks. 2nd ed. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1982.

Readings by Session

Rock Forming Minerals (RFM)
1 (RFM) I Olivine and Spinel

2 RFM II: Feldspars

3 RFM III Pyroxenes

4 RFM IV Pyriboles

5 1-Energy Functions-E-S-V and G-T-P-X Spear. pp. 133-146, 175-183.
6 P-T-X Phase Diagrams

Gibbs Phase Rule

Spear. pp. 247-288.
7 2-Exchange Reactions and Equilibrium Constants Roeder and Emslie.
8 3-Earth’s Outer Mantle - Phase Relations and Variation with Tectonic Setting Hess. Chapter 6.
9 Mantle Rock Types and Processes

Pyroxene Thermobarometry


Wood and Fraser. pp. 134-139.

10 Serpentine Stability - Recycling of Mantle

Origin of Mantle Rocks - Igneous vs. Metamorphic Processes

11 4-Melting and Crystallization Processes

T-X-X Phase Diagrams (3 Components) Freezing/Melting in Crust and Mantle

Hess. Chapter 2.
12 5-Basalts, Komatiites Rock Series Mantle Melting Processes Hess. Chapters 8, 9, and 18.
13 Mid-term

14 6-Phase Equilibria: Silicate + H2O

Magma Generation in Subduction Zones

Hess. Chapter 10.
15 7-Granitic Rocks and Crustal Magmatic Processes Hess. Chapter 15.
16 Continental Crustal Igneous Rocks

17 The Major Types of Sedimentary Rocks

Distribution of Sediments on the Earth’s Surface

Boggs. Chapter 1.
18 Metamorphic Petrology 1 - Metamorphic Processes, Contact, Regional, T and P Variations Spear. Chapter 1.
19 Metamorphic Petrology 2 - Metamorphic Facies

Heat Flow and Heat Production in Crust

Spear. Chapter 2.

———. Chapter 3.

20 Metamorphic Petrology 3 - Metamorphism of Pelitic Rocks Minerals and Isograds Spear. Chapter 10.
21 Metamorphic Petrology 4 - Pelites - The AKFM System Continuous and Discontinuous Reactions Spear. Chapter 10.
22 Metamorphic Petrology 5 - Metamorphism of Mafic Rocks, Metamorphism Spear. Chapter 11.
23 Greenschists, Blueschists and Eclogites

24 Metamorphic Petrology 6 - Metamorphism of Calc-silicates Spear. Chapter 12.

Course Info

As Taught In
Fall 2005
Learning Resource Types
Lecture Notes
Problem Sets