Lecture Notes

The lecture notes are available in a single file as well ( PDF - 13.2 MB).

SES # TOPICS
1 Shallow Water Gravity Waves ( PDF)

1.1 Surface Motions on Shallow Water

1.2 Small-amplitude Shallow-water Surface Waves

1.3 Background Theory-nondispersive Waves

1.3.1 Oscillations

1.3.2 Nondispersive Waves

1.3.3 Two-dimensional Waves

1.4 Motions within a Wave

1.5 Surface Wave reflection and modes

1.5.1 1-D Reflection

1.5.2 Modes in a Bounded 1-D Domain

1.5.3 Reflection of Plane Waves

1.6 Further Reading

2 Shallow Water Gravity Waves (cont.)
3 Deep Water Gravity Waves ( PDF)

2.1 Surface Motions on Water of Finite Depth

2.2 Small-amplitude Deep-water Surface Waves

2.2.1 The Long Wave (Shallow Water) Limit

2.2.2 The Short Wave (Deep Water) Limit

2.3 Background Theory-dispersive Waves

2.3.1 Dispersion

2.3.2 Group Velocity

2.3.3 Group Velocity in Multi-dimensional Waves

2.4 Surface Wave dispersion

2.5 Particle Motions within a Wave

2.6 Wave Generation by Wind

2.7 Wave Breaking

2.8 Further Reading

4 Deep Water Gravity Waves (cont.)
5 Internal Gravity Waves ( PDF - 1.5 MB)

3.1 Interfacial Waves

3.2 Internal Waves in a Fluid with Continuous Stratification

3.3 Vertical Density Structure of the Ocean

3.4 Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere

3.4.1 The Vertical Structure of a Compressible Atmosphere

3.5 Potential Temperature and Static Stability

3.5.1 Thermodynamics of Dry Air

3.5.2 Static Stability

3.6 Internal Waves in the Atmosphere

3.6.1 The Buoyancy Frequency in a Compressible Atmosphere

3.6.2 Mountain Waves

3.7 Further Reading

3.8 Appendix to Ch. 3: Theory of Internal Gravity Waves

3.8.1 Stable Density Stratification in an Incompressible Fluid

3.8.2 Small Amplitude Motions in an Incompressible Fluid with Continuous Stratification

6 Internal Gravity Waves (cont.)
7 Mid-Term Quiz 1
8 Tides ( PDF 1 of 2 - 3.0 MB) ( PDF 2 of 2)

4.1 Tidal Forcing

4.1.1 The “semi-diurnal” Component

4.1.2 Lunar vs. Solar Forcing

4.1.3 The “diurnal” Component

4.2 Tides in the Ocean

4.2.1 The “equilibrium tide”

4.2.2 Tides in a Global Ocean

4.2.3 Tides in Ocean Basins

4.2.4 Kelvin Waves

4.2.5 Tides in Inlets and Bays

4.3 Atmospheric Tides

4.4 Further Reading

9 Tides (cont.)
10 Large-scale Motions on a Rotating Earth ( PDF)

5.1 The Equations of Motion on a Rotating Plane

5.2 Rapid Rotation

5.3 Two-dimensional Rotating Flow

5.3.1 The Barotropic Equations of Motion

5.3.2 Vorticity and the Barotropic Vorticity Equation

5.4 Further Reading

11 Large-scale Motions on a Rotating Earth (cont.)
12 Rossby Waves and Planetary Scale Motions ( PDF)

6.1 Observed Planetary Scale Waves in the Atmosphere

6.2 Theory of Rossby Waves

6.2.1 The ß -plane

6.2.2 Small Amplitude Barotropic Waves on a Motionless Basic State

6.2.3 Typical Values

6.2.4 Mechanism of Rossby Wave Propagation

6.3 Rossby Waves in Westerly Flow

6.3.1 Dispersion Relation: Stationary Waves and Dispersion

6.3.2 Forced Stationary Waves

6.3.3 Vertical Structure

6.4 Rossby Waves in the Ocean

6.4.1 Western intensification

6.5 Vorticity and Potential Vorticity in a Fluid of Varying Depth

6.6 Rossby Waves in a Fluid of Varying Depth

6.7 GFD Experiment: Topographic Rossby Waves in the Lee of a Ridge

6.8 Further Reading

13 Rossby Waves and Planetary Scale Motions (cont.)
14 Mid-Term Quiz 2
15 Baroclinic Instability and Midlatitude Storms ( PDF - 2.2 MB)

7.1 Three-dimensional Geostrophic Flow

7.1.1 In Geometric Coordinates (x,y,z )

7.1.2 In Pressure Coordinates (x,y,p)

7.1.3 Thermal Wind Balance

7.1.4 Thermodynamic Equation

7.2 Structure of Synoptic Storm Systems

7.3 Cyclogenesis and Energetics

7.4 Vertical Structure of Growing Disturbances

7.5 Fronts

7.5.1 Frontogenesis

7.5.2 Frontal Evolution

7.5.3 Frontal Structure and Weather

7.6 Climatology of Synoptic Systems: Storm Tracks

7.7 Further Reading

16 Baroclinic Instability and Midlatitude Storms (cont.)
17 The Equatorial Atmosphere and Ocean ( PDF 1 of 2 - 2.9 MB) ( PDF 2 of 2 - 1.5 MB)

8.1 Tropical Meteorological Maps

8.2 The Trade Wind Circulation

8.3 The “Walker Circulation”

8.3.1. Observations; The Atmosphere

8.3.2 Observations; The Ocean

8.3.3 Theory of the Walker Circulation

8.4 Monsoons

8.4.1 Seasonal Variations Over the Tropics

8.4.2 Monsoon Characteristics

8.5 Monsoon Depressions and Breaks

18 The Equatorial Atmosphere and Ocean (cont.)
19 El Niño and the Southern Oscillation ( PDF - 1.4 MB)

9.1 Interannual Fluctuations of the Walker Circulation: The “Southern Oscillation”

9.2 SST Variations: El Niño and La Niña

9.3 The Coupled Phenomenon

9.4 The Evolution of an El Niño: 1982-83

9.5 Theory of ENS0

9.5.1 What the Observations Suggest

9.5.2 The Ocean Forces the Atmospheric Behavior

9.5.3 The Atmosphere Forces the Oceanic Behavior

9.5.4 ENS0 is a Coupled Atmosphere-ocean Phenomenon

9.6 Connections with Extratropical Latitudes

9.7 Further Reading

20 El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (cont.)
21 Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes, Typhoons)

10.1 Genesis

10.2 Structure

10.3 Decay

10.4 Mechanism of Tropical Cyclone Development

10.5 Further Reading

22 Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes, Typhoons) (cont.)
23 Final Exam

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