Readings

The following books are required reading for this seminar:

Finnemore, Martha. The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force. Cornell University Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780801489594. [Preview with Google Books]

Kuperman, Alan J. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Brookings Institution Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780815700852. [Preview with Google Books]

Petersen, Roger D. Western Intervention in the Balkans: The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict. Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN: 9780521281263. [Preview with Google Books]

Lyons, Terrence, and Ahmed I. Samatar. Somalia: State Collapse, Multilateral Intervention, and Strategies for Political Reconstruction. Brookings Institution Press, 1995. ISBN: 9780815753513. [Preview with Google Books]

Prunier, Gérard. Darfur: A 21st Century Genocide. 3rd ed. Cornell University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780801475030.

Bowden, Mark. Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War. Grove Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780802144737.

Additional readings for the seminar are featured in the table below.

Week # TOPICS READINGS
1 Background and Big Picture

Finnemore, Martha. The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force. Cornell University Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780801489594. [Preview with Google Books]

Heilbrunn, Jacob. “Samantha and Her Subjects.” National Interest 113 (2011): 6–15.

Kildron, Lance. “The Libyan Model and Strategy: Why it Won’t Work in Syria.” Journal of Strategic Security 5, no. 4 (2012): 33–50.

2 Key Interveners and Their Policy Preferences

United States and Grand Strategy after the Cold War

Krauthammer, Charles. “The Unipolar Moment.” Foreign Affairs 70, no. 1, America and the World 1990/91 (1990–1991): 23–33.

Posen, Barry R., and Andrew L. Ross. “Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategy.” International Security 21, no. 3 (1996–1997): 5–53.

United States

Miller, Benjamin. “The Logic of U.S. Military Intervention in the post-Cold War Era.” Contemporary Security Policy 19, no. 3 (1998): 72–109.

Daalder, Ivo H. “Knowing When to Say No: The Development of U.S. Policy For Peacekeeping.” Chapter 2 in UN Peacekeeping, American Policy, and the Uncivil Wars of the 1990s. Edited by William J. Durch. Palgrave Macmillan, 1996. ISBN: 9780312160753.

Evans, Gareth, Ramesh Thakur, et al. “Correspondence: Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect.” International Security 37, no. 4 (2013): 199–214.

Europe

Solana, Javier. “A Secure Europe in a Better World.” (PDF) European Council, Thessaloniki, 20/06/2003.

Security Arguments

Batt, Judy, and Dov Lynch. “What is a ‘Failing State’, and When Is It a Security Threat?” (PDF) EU Institute for Security Studies, 2004.

Patrick, Stewart. “Weak States and Global Threats: Fact or Fiction?Washington Quarterly 29, no. 2 (2006): 27–53.

Pro-Intervention

Crocker, Chester A. “Engaging Failing States.” Foreign Affairs 82, no. 5 (2003): 32–44.

Mallaby, Sebastian. “The Reluctant Imperialist: Terrorism, Failed States, and the Case for American Empire.” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 2 (2002): 2–7.

Solarz, Stephen J., and Michael E. O’ Hanlon. “Humanitarian Intervention: When is Force Justified?Washington Quarterly 20, no. 4 (1997): 2–14.

Anti-Intervention

Stedman, Stephen John. “The New Interventionists.” Foreign Affairs 72, no. 1, America and the World 1992/93 (1992–1993): 1–16.

Mandelbaum, Michael. “Foreign Policy as Social Work.” Foreign Affairs 75, no. 1 (1996): 16–32.

Luttwak, Edward N. “The Curse of Inconclusive Intervention.” Chapter 16 in Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. United States Institute of Peace Press, 2001. ISBN: 9781929223275.

3 Theories of Internal Conflicts: Origins, Nature, and Extent

Extent of Internal Conflicts

Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Peter Wallensteen, et al. “Armed Conflict 1946-2001: A New Dataset.” Journal of Peace Research 39, no. 5 (2002): 615–37.

Harbom, Lotta, Erik Melander, et al. “Dyadic Dimensions of Armed Conflict, 1946–2007.” Journal of Peace Research 45, no. 5 (2008): 697–710.

For a portal to the data employed in the preceding articles, and much additional data, see the PRIO Network.

Origin of Internal Conflicts – Identity

Byman, Daniel, and Stephen Van Evera. “Why They Fight: Hypotheses on the Causes of Contemporary Deadly Conflict.” Security Studies 7, no. 3 (1998): 1–50.

Fuller, Graham E. “America’s Uncomfortable Relationship with Nationalism.” (PDF) Stanley Foundation Policy Analysis Brief, July 2006.

Origin of Internal Conflicts – Rotten Elites

Buy at MIT Press Brown, Michael E. “The Causes of Internal Conflict: An Overview.” In Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Revised ed. Edited by Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté, Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller. MIT Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780262523158.

Valentino, Benjamin. “Final Solutions: The Causes of Mass Killing and Genocide.” Security Studies 9, no. 3 (2000): 1–59.

Origin of Internal Conflicts – Anarchy and the Security Dilemma

Posen, Barry R. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.” Survival: Global Politcs and Stategy 35, no. 1 (1993): 27–47.

Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. “Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97, no. 1 (2003): 75–90.

Themnér, Lotta, and Peter Wallensteen. “Armed conflict, 1946-2010.” Journal of Peace Research 48, no. 4 (2011): 525–36.

4 Setting the Agenda: Doctors, Lawyers, and Journalists

Early Wanting and Preventive Diplomacy

Betts, Richard K. “Surprise Despite Warning: Why Sudden Attacks Succeed.” Political Science Quarterly 95, no. 4 (1980–1981): 551–72.

Stedman, Stephen John. “Alchemy for a New World Order: Overselling ‘Preventive Diplomacy’.” Foreign Affairs 74, no. 3 (1995): 14–20.

Lund, Michael S. “Underrating Preventive Diplomacy.” Foreign Affairs 74, no. 4 (1995): 160–3.

Atwood, J. Brian. “Letters to the Editor: A Thousand Rwandas.” Foreign Affairs 74, no. 5 (1995): 189–91.

Stedman, Steven John. “Letters to the Editor: Weird Science.” Foreign Affairs 74, no. 5 (1995): 191.

DeMars, William. “Waiting for Early Warning: Humanitarian Action After the Cold War.” Journal of Refugee Studies 8, no. 4 (1995): 390–410.

De Waal, Alex, and Larry Minear. “Responses to DeMars.” Journal of Refugee Studies 8, no. 4 (1995): 411–7.

Jentleson, Bruce W. “Preventive Diplomacy: A Conceptual Analytical Framework.” Chapter 1 in Opportunities Missed, Opportunities Seized: Preventive Diplomacy in the Post-Cold War World. Edited by Bruce W. Jentleson. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999. ISBN: 9780847685592. [Preview with Google Books]

———. “Preventive Diplomacy: Analytical Conclusions and Policy Lessons.” Chapter 13 in Opportunities Missed, Opportunities Seized: Preventive Diplomacy in the Post-Cold War World. Edited by Bruce W. Jentleson. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999. ISBN: 9780847685592. [Preview with Google Books]

The Role Of The Media

Strobel, Warren P. “The CNN Effect.” American Journalism Review 18 (1996): 32–4.

Livingston, Steven. “Clarifying the CNN Effect: An Examination of Media Effects According to Type of Military Intervention.” (PDF) Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Research Paper R-18, June 1997.

Bob, Clifford. “Power, Exchange, and Marketing.” Chapter 2 in The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media, and International Activism. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN: 9780521607865. [Preview with Google Books]

The Role of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)

Buy at MIT Press Weiss, Thomas G. “Nongovernmental Organizations and Internal Conflict.” Chapter 13 in The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Edited by Michael E. Brown. MIT Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780262522090. 

International Law

Ryniker, Anne. “The ICRC’s position on ‘humanitarian intervention.” Revue Internationale de la Croix-Rouge/International Review of the Red Cross 83, no. 842 (2001): 527–32.

Bass, Gary Jonathan. “Introduction.” Chapter 1 in Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780691092782.

———. “Conclusion.” Chapter 7 in Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780691092782.

Brown, Bartram S. “The Statute of the ICC: Past, Present and Future.” Chapter 4 in The United States and the International Criminal Court: National Security and International Law. Edited by Sarah B. Sewall and Carl Kaysen. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000. ISBN: 9780742501355. [Preview with Google Books]

Bellamy, Alex J. “Whither the Responsibility to Protect? Humanitarian Intervention and the 2005 World Summit.” Ethics & International Affairs 20, no. 2 (2006): 143–69.

Skim the following so that you are familiar with some of the relevant texts:

Roberts, Adam, and Richard Guelff, eds. “1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.” Chapter 16 in Documents on the Laws of War. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780198763901.

Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949, icrc.org.

Roberts, Adam, and Richard Guelff, eds. “1977 Geneva Protocol II Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts.” Chapter 25 in Documents on the Laws of War. 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780198763901.

Evans, Malcolm D., ed. “Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951),” and “Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (1967).” In Blackstone’s Statutes on International Law Documents. 11th ed. Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN: 9780199678617. [Preview with Google Books]

Chapter VI: Pacific Settlement of Disputes, Charter of the United Nations, un.org.

Chapter VII: Actions with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace, and Acts of Aggression, Charter of the United Nations, un.org.

Ethics, Morals, and Norms

PP. II, VII-XXI, 69-85 in The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (PDF - 3.78MB). International Development Research Centre, December 2001.

5 External Intervention and the Use of Force?

Deterrence and Coercion

Schelling, Thomas C. “The Art of Commitment.” Chapter 2 in Arms and Influence. Revised edition. Yale University Press, 2008, pp. 69–91. ISBN: 9780300143379.

Posen, Barry R. “Military Responses to Refugee Disasters.” International Security 21, no. 1 (1996): 72–111.

Delusions?

Rose, Gideon. “The Exit Strategy Delusion.” Foreign Affairs 77, no. 1 (1998): 56–67.

Betts, Richard K. “The Delusion of Impartial Intervention.” Chapter 18 in Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. Edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. United States Institute of Peace Press, 2001. ISBN: 9781929223275.

Tactics

Quinlivan, James T. “Force Requirements in Stability Operations.” Parameters 25, no. 4 (1995–1996): 59–69.

Byman, Daniel, and Taylor B. Seybolt. “Humanitarian Intervention and Communal Civil Wars: Problems and Alternative Approaches.” Security Studies 13, no. 1 (2003): 33–78.

Shafer, D. Michael. “Mao Minus Marx.” Chapter 5 in Deadly Paradigms: The Failure of U.S. Counterinsurgency Policy. Princeton University Press, 1989, pp. 115–32. ISBN: 9780691023090.

Record, Jeffrey. “The American Way of War: Cultural Barriers to Successful Counterinsurgency.” (PDF) Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 577, September 1, 2006.

Recommended

Sanctions

Buy at MIT Press Rogers, Elizabeth S. “Economic Sanctions and Internal Conflict.” Chapter 12 in The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Edited by Michael E. Brown. MIT Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780262522090. [Preview with Google Books]

Elliott, Kimberly Ann. “The Sanctions Glass: Half Full or Completely Empty?International Security 23, no. 1 (1998): 50–65.

Bash, Brooks L. “Airpower and Peacekeeping.” Airpower Journal 9, no. 1 (1995): 66.

Treacher, Adrian. “A Case of Reinvention: France and Military Intervention in the 1990s.” International Peacekeeping 7, no. 2 (2000): 23–40.

Thornton, Rod. “The Role of Peace Support Operations Doctrine in the British Army.” International Peacekeeping 7, no. 2 (2000): 41–62.

Cutler, David. “Timeline: Libya’s uprising against Muammar Gaddafi,” reuters.com, August 22, 2011.

6 Political Strategy and Intervention

Theories For Success

Barnett, Michael. “Building a Republican Peace: Stabilizing States after War.” International Security 30, no. 4 (2006): 87–112.

Kaufmann, Chaim. “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars.” (PDF) International Security 20, no. 4 (1996): 136–75.

Walter, Barbara F. “The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement.” International Organization 51, no. 3 (1997): 335–64.

Nathan, Laurie, and Monica Duffy Toft. “Correspondence: Civil War Settlements and the Prospects for Peace.” International Security 36, no. 1 (2011): 202–10.

Byman, Daniel. “Participatory Systems.” Chapter 6 in Keeping the Peace: Lasting Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts. John Hopkins University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780801868047. [Preview with Google Books]

Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. “Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States.” International Security 28, no. 4 (2004): 5–43.

Herbst, Jeffrey. “Let Them Fail: State Failure in Theory and Practice: Implications for Policy.” Chapter 14 in When States Fail: Causes and Consequences. Edited by Robert I. Rotberg. Princeton University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780691116723. [Preview with Google Books]

Edelstein, David M. “Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail.” International Security 29, no. 1 (2004): 49–91.

Doyle, Michael W., and Nicholas Sambanis. “Theoretical Perspectives.” Chapter 2 in Making War & Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations. Princeton University Press, 2006. ISBN: 9780691122755. [Preview with Google Books]

Downes, Alexander B., and Jonathan Monten. “Forced to Be Free?: Why Foreign-Imposed Regime Change Rarely Leads to Democratization.” International Security 37, no. 4 (2013): 90–131.

7 Northern Iraq and Somalia

Iraq

Weiss, Thomas G. “Northern Iraq, 1991–1996: A Difficult Act to Follow?” Chapter 4 in Military-Civilian Interactions: Intervening in Humanitarian Crises. Edited by Thomas G. Weiss. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999. ISBN: 9780847687466.

Freedman, Lawrence, and David Boren. “Safe Havens’ for Kurds in Post-War Iraq.” Chapter 3 in To Loose the Bands of Wickedness: International Intervention in Defence of Human Rights. Edited by Nigel S. Rodley. Brassey’s, 1993. ISBN: 9781857530476.

Recommended

Rudd, Gordon W. “Operation Provide Comfort: Humanitarian Intervention in Northern Iraq 1991,” Thesis (Ph.D.), Duke University, 1993.

Seiple, Chris. “The U.S. Military/NGO Relationship in Humanitarian Interventions.” (PDF) Peacekeeping Institute, Center For Strategic Leadership, U.S. Army War College, 1996.

Somalia

Western, Jon. “Sources of Humanitarian Intervention: Beliefs, Information, and Advocacy in the U.S. Decisions on Somalia and Bosnia.” International Security 26, no. 4 (2002): 112–42.

Hirsch, John L., and Robert B. Oakley. “Reflections.” Chapter 8 in Somalia and Operation Restore Hope: Reflections on Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995. ISBN: 9781878379412.

Bolton, John R. “Wrong Turn in Somalia.” Foreign Affairs 73, no. 1 (1994): 56–66.

Clarke, Walter, and Jeffrey Herbst. “Somalia and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention.” Foreign Affairs 75, no. 2 (1996): 70–85.

Crocker, Chester A. “The Lessons of Somalia: Not Everything Went Wrong.” Foreign Affairs 74, no. 3 (1995): 2–8.

Howe, Jonathan T. “The United States and the United Nations in Somalia: The Limits of Involvement.” Washington Quarterly 18, no. 3 (1995): 47–62.

Recommended

Farrell, Theo. “Sliding into War: The Somalia Imbroglio and US Army Peace Operations Doctrine.” International Peacekeeping 2, no. 2 (1995): 194–214.

Ambush in Mogadishu,” Frontline, pbs.org.

Optional viewing

asterix50bc. “Ambush in Mogadishu – The Real ‘Black Hawk Down’ story Part 1.” February 8, 2012. YouTube. Accessed January 23, 2014. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Bw0av9khjw

asterix50bc. “Ambush in Mogadishu – The Real ‘Black Hawk Down’ story Part 2.” February 8, 2012. YouTube. Accessed January 23, 2014. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgNhEdPm6O0

asterix50bc. “Ambush in Mogadishu – The Real ‘Black Hawk Down’ story Part 3.” February 8, 2012. YouTube. Accessed January 23, 2014. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z-vxloGpRt8

asterix50bc. “Ambush in Mogadishu – The Real ‘Black Hawk Down’ story Part 4.” February 8, 2012. YouTube. Accessed January 23, 2014. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNhPM5pp6Z4

8 Rwanda and Darfur

Rwanda

Power, Samantha. “Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen.” Atlantic Monthly 288, no. 2 (2001): 84–108.

U.S. Policy on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations (PDF), Presidential Decision Directive/NSC- 25, May 3, 1994.

Destexhe, Alain. “The Third Genocide.” Foreign Policy 97 (1994–1995): 3–17.

Prunier, Gérard. “The Great Lakes Crisis.Current History 96, no. 610 (1997): 193–99.

Feil, Scott R. Preventing Genocide: How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1998.

Prunier, Gérard. “The Hutu Republic (1959–1990): The Habyarimana Regime.” Chapter 2 in The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. Columbia University Press, 1995. ISBN: 9780231104098. [Preview with Google Books]

———. “The Arusha Peace Marathon (June 1992-August 1993).” Chapter 5 in The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. Columbia University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780231104098. 

McDoom, Omar Shahabudin. “The Psychology of Threat in Intergroup Conflict: Emotions, Rationality, and Opportunity in the Rwandan Genocide.” International Security 37, no. 2 (2012): 119–55.

Recommended

De Forges, Alison Liebhafsky. Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch, 1999. ISBN: 9781564321718.

Darfur

Prunier, Gérard. Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. Cornell University Press, 2007.

From The Editors: Again.” New Republic, May 15, 2006.

From The Editors: Again, Part II.” New Republic, June 19, 2006.

Zengerle, Jason. “Student Aid.” New Republic, March 20 & 27, 2006.

Rieff, David. “Moral Blindness.” New Republic, June 5 & 12, 2006.

Straus, Scott. “Darfur and the Genocide Debate.” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 1 (2005): 123–33.

Sandall, Roger. “Can Sudan Be Saved?Commentary 118, no. 5 (2004): 38–44.

Kurth, James. “Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Legal Ideals Versus Military Realities.” Orbis 50, no. 1 (2006): 87–101.

Kuperman, Alan J. “Strategic Victimhood in Sudan,New York Times, May 31, 2006.

9 Balkans

Burg, Steven L., and Paul S. Shoup. The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention. M.E. Sharpe, 2000. ISBN: 9781563243097. [Preview with Google Books]

Judah, Tim. Kosovo: War and Revenge. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780300097252.

Independent International Commission on Kosovo. “Executive Summary.” In The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780199243099.

———. “International Law and Humanitarian Intervention.” In The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN: 9780199243099.

Posen, Barry R. “The War for Kosovo: Serbia’s Political-Military Strategy.” International Security 24, no. 4 (2000): 39–84.

Roberts, Adam. “NATO’s ‘Humanitarian War’ Over Kosovo.” Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 41, no. 3 (1999): 102–23.

Hagen, William W. “The Balkans’ Lethal Nationalisms.” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 4 (1999): 52–64.

Mandelbaum, Michael. “A Perfect Failure: NATO’s War Against Yugoslavia.” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 5 (1999): 2–8.

Solana, Javier. “NATO’s Success in Kosovo.” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 6 (1999): 114–20.

Steinberg, James B. “Response: A Perfect Polemic-Blind to Reality on Kosovo.” Foreign Affairs 78, no. 6 (1999): 128–33.

“Kosovo Air Operations: Need to Maintain Alliance Cohesion Resulted in Doctrinal Departures.” (PDF) GAO-01-784, U.S. General Accounting Office, July 2001.

Kosovo/Kosova: As Seen, As Told - An analysis of the human rights findings of the OSCE Kosovo Verification Mission, October 1998 to June 1999,” pp. 21-30, OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, 1999.

“Report To Congress: Kosovo/Operation Allied Force After-Action Report.” (PDF - 2.23MB) U.S. Department of Defense, January 31, 2000.

10 Iraq

Fallows, James “Blind into Baghdad,” Atlantic Monthly, January 1, 2004.

Diamond, Larry. “What Went Wrong in Iraq.” Foreign Affairs 83, no. 5 (2004): 34–56.

Lawson, Chappell, and Strom C. Thacker. “Democracy? In Iraq?Hoover Digest, July 30, 2003.

Dobbins, James. “Who Lost Iraq? Lessons from the Debacle.” Foreign Affairs 86, no. 5 (2007): 61–74.

Hendrickson, David C., and Robert W. Tucker. “Revisions in Need of Revising: What Went Wrong in the Iraq War.” Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 47, no. 2 (2005): 7–32.

Fearon, James D. “Iraq’s Civil War.” Foreign Affairs 86, no. 2 (2007): 2–15.

Posen, Barry R. “Exit Strategy: How to Disengage from Iraq in 18 Months.” Boston Review, January 1, 2006.

Pollack, Kenneth M. “The Seven Deadly Sins of Failure in Iraq: A Retrospective Analysis of the Reconstruction.” brookings.edu, December 1, 2006.

Biddle, Stephen. “Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon.” Foreign Affairs 85, no. 2 (2006): 2–14.

Cole, Juan. “Audit of the Conventional Wisdom: Iraq’s Three Civil Wars.” (PDF) MIT Center for International Studies, January 2008.

Simon, Steve. “The Price of the Surge: How U.S. Strategy is Hastening Iraq’s Demise.” Foreign Affairs 87, no. 3 (2008): 57–72, 74-6.

11 Libya

Resolution 1973 (2011), United Nations Security Council, March 17, 2011.

Hehir, Aidan. “The Permanence of Inconsistency: Libya, the Security Council, and the Responsibility to Protect.” International Security 38, no. 1 (2013): 137–59.

Kuperman, Alan J. “A Model Humanitarian Intervention? Reassessing NATO’s Libya Campaign.” International Security 38, no. 1 (2013): 105–36.

Wehry, Frederic. “The hidden story of airpower in Libya (and what it means for Syria),” foreignpolicy.com, February 11, 2013.

Schmitt, Eric. “NATO Sees Flaws in Air Campaign Against Qaddafi,” New York Times, April 14, 2012.

Walt, Vivienne. “How Did Gaddafi Die? A Year Later, Unanswered Questions and Bad Blood,” Time, October 18, 2012.

For background on the military operation visit:

NATO and Libya: Operation Unified Protector, February – October 2011, nato.int.

Recommended

Bell, Anthony, and David Witter.“Executive Summary.” In The Libyan Revolution, Part 1: Roots Of Rebellion. Institute for the Study of War, 2011.

———. “Executive Summary.” In The Libyan Revolution, Part 2: Escalation & Intervention. Institute for the Study of War, 2011.

———. “Executive Summary.” In The Libyan Revolution, Part 3: Stalemate & Siege . Institute for the Study of War, 2011.

Bell, Anthony, Spencer Butts, and David Witter. “Executive Summary.” In The Libyan Revolution, Part 4: The Tide Turns. Institute for the Study of War, 2011.

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