Lecture Notes


TE = thermal equilibrium
MOS = metal-on-silicon
MOSFET = metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor
BJT = bipolar junction transistor
CMOS = complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor
CS = common source
OCTC = open circuit time constant

1 Introduction to semiconductors, doping, generation/recombination, TE carrier concentrations. Carrier dynamics and transport: drift. ( PDF )  
2 Excess populations and minimum carrier lifetime, photoconductivity. Non-uniform concentrations and diffusion. Fick’s first and second laws. ( PDF )  
3 The five basic equations. Device structures in TE: carriers and electrostatic potential; the 60 mV rule. Poisson’s equation (PE). ( PDF )

Solving the five equations ( PDF )

Photoconductors ( PDF )

4 P-n junctions in thermal equilibrium and under reverse bias, the depletion approximation (DA), comparison to PE solution. ( PDF )  
5 Review reverse biased junctions. Consider forward bias and the special case of minority carrier injection into quasineutral regions. ( PDF )  
6 Forward biased p-n junctions: carrier injection, i-v characteristics (ideal and real; forward and reverse). Engineering carrier injection. ( PDF )  
7 Bipolar junction transistors: two coupled diodes, terminal characteristics, regions of operation ( PDF )  
8 Solar cells and LEDs (light emitting diodes). ( PDF )  
9 MOS capacitors: the DA applied to two-terminal MOS capacitor accumulation, depletion, and inversion; VFB, VT, QA, and QN ( PDF )  
10 The three-terminal MOS capacitor. MOSFETs: begin gradual channel approximation (GCA) using DA and ignoring subthreshold carriers. ( PDF ) CCD Nobel Prize slides ( PDF )
11 Complete GC/DA model for iDS: saturation, channel length modulation. Output characteristics; regions of operation. ( PDF )

Drain current model ( PDF )

Gradual channel approximation for MOSFETs ( PDF )

12 Subthreshold operation of MOSFETs. Development of model; compare to full numerical solution. Compare to/contrast with BJTs. ( PDF - 1.0MB ) Sub-threshold modeling notes ( PDF - 1.1MB )
13 Linear equivalent circuits for MOSFETs and BJTs at low and high frequency; transconductance of subthreshold MOSFETs. ( PDF )  
14 Logic inverter basics. Introduction to CMOS: transfer characteristics, noise margins, optimal device sizing. ( PDF )

Inverter analysis and design ( PDF )

Analysis of inverter switching delays ( PDF )

15 CMOS analysis, continued: switching delays, power dissipation, speed/power trade-offs. ( PDF ) Analysis of CMOS gate delay and power ( PDF )
16 CMOS analysis, continued: subthreshold leakage, scaling rules, and where it is all going. ( PDF )

CMOS scaling and power dissipation ( PDF )

CMOS scaling: comparing 1970 and 2000 ( PDF )

17 Linear amplifier basics: performance metrics, current source biasing, current mirrors, mid-band range, two-port representation. ( PDF )  
18 Single-transistor building block stages: common-source, common-gate, and common-drain (follower) stages; characteristics and features. ( PDF )  
19 Differential amplifiers: large signal transfer characteristics; small signal analysis using common- and difference-mode inputs. ( PDF )  
20 Multi-stage amplifiers I: cascading diff stages; current source biasing; output stages. ( PDF ) Active loads: current mirror load, Lee load ( PDF )
21 Multi-stage amplifiers II: active loads, biasing for maximum gain, input and output swings. ( PDF ) The marvelous cascode ( PDF )
22 Multi-stage amplifiers III: examples, stage selection, speciality stages, looking at a commercial op-amp schematic. Begin frequency response. ( PDF - 1.1MB )  
23 Frequency response of CS amplifiers, the Miller effect. Intrinsic frequency limitations of MOSFETs. Biasing to maximize speed, power trade-off. ( PDF )  
24 OCTC method for estimating frequency response. Subthreshold amplifiers for ultra-lower power electronics, frequency performance. ( PDF - 1.1MB )  
25 MOS imagers. Semester wrap-up; life after 6.012. ( PDF )  

Course Info

Learning Resource Types

assignment Problem Sets
grading Exams with Solutions
notes Lecture Notes
group_work Projects
assignment Design Assignments