CMS.361 | Spring 2014 | Undergraduate

Networked Social Movements: Media & Mobilization

Calendar and Readings


Introductions and research interests

Overview of the class

Social movement studies, broad overview.

Social movement research methods, broad overview.

Watch: 10 Tactics for turning information into action


Networked Movements & Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs)

Methods Lab

Models of Social Movements (DayWeFightBack, PageOneX)

Book Report: Ronfeldt, David, John Arquilla, et al. The Zapatista “Social Netwar” in Mexico. Rand Corporation, 1999. ISBN: 9780833026569. [Preview with Google Books]

Garrett, R. Kelly. “Protest in an Information Society: A _R_eview of Literature on Social Movements and New ICTs.” Information, Communication & Society 9, no. 2 (2006): 202–24.

Aday, Sean, et. al. Blogs and Bullets: New Media in Contentious Politics. (PDF - 4.0MB) United States Institute of Peace, 2010.

Castells, Manuel. “Communication, Power and Counter-power in the Network Society.” International Journal of Communication 1, no 1 (2007): 238–66.


McAdam, Doug, John McCarthy, and Mayer Zald, eds. “Introduction.” In Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN: 9780521485166. [Preview with Google Books]

Carty, Victoria. “Overview of Social Movement Theories and a Proposed Synthesis.” In Wired and Mobilizing: Social Movements, New Technology, and Electoral Politics. Routledge, 2010. ISBN: 9780415880701.

Garrido, Mario, and Alexander Halavais. “Mapping Networks of Support for the Zapatista Movement: Applying Social-Networks Analysis to Study Contemporary Social Movements.” 2001.

Hargittai, Eszter. “The Digital Reproduction of Inequality.” (PDF - 1.3MB) In Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Westview Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780813343730.


(Classical Theories), Resource Mobilization, Political Process

Book Report: Tarrow, Sidney. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contenious Politics. Cambridge University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780521629478. [Preview with Google Books]

Methods Lab

Model Your Movement (based on Name That Tech workshop)

Le Bon, Gustave. “General Characteristics of Crowds – Psychological Law of their Mental Unity.” Excerpted from The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. 1896.

McCarthy, John D., and Mayer N. Zald. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” The American Journal of Sociology 82, no. 6 (1977): 1212–41.

Blanco, Victor. [“The Media Politics of Social Protest.” (PDF)]( Media Politics of Protest.pdf) Mobilization 2, no. 2 (1997): 185–205.


Le Bon, Gustave. “Crowds Termed Criminal Crowds.” Excerpted from T__he Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. 1896.

Goodwin, Jeff, and James Jasper. “Caught in a Winding, Snarling Vine: The Structural Bias of Political Process Theory.Sociological Forum 14, no. 1 (1999): 27–54.

Jenkins, J. Craig. “Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements”. Annual Review of Sociology 9 (1983): 527–53.

Karpf, David. “Online Political Mobilization from the Advocacy Group’s Perspective: Looking Beyond Clicktivism.” Policy & Internet 2, no. 4 (2010): 7–41.


Framing & Standing

Book Report: Ferree, Myra, et al. Shaping Abortion Discourse: Democracy and the Public Sphere in Germany and the United States. Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780521793841. [Preiview with Google Books]

Methods Lab

Attention Analysis with PageOneX, or, move that to next week and we’ll join the “Music, Culture, and Transformation” panel on Fukushima Activism, Postwar Pop, Intermedia Art, and Global Hip-Hop.

Frame Analysis

Benford, Robert, and David Snow. “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment.” Annual Review of Sociology 26 (2000): 611–39.

Take the Frameworks Institute mini-course.

Moody, Chris. “How Republicans Are Being Taught to Talk About Occupy Wall Street,” Yahoo! News, December 1, 2011.

Browse methods of Shaping Abortion Discourse, especially the coding set.


Benford, Robert D. “An Insider’s Critique of Social Movement Framing Perspective.” Sociological Inquiry 67, no. 4 (1997): 409–30.

Capek, Stella M. “The Environmental Justice Frame: A Conceptual Discussion and an Application.” Social Problems 40, no. 1 (1993): 5–24.

Oliver, Pamela E., and Hank Johnston. “What a Good Idea! Ideology and Frames in Social Movement Research.” (PDF) Mobilization 5, no. 1 (2000): 37–54.

Snow, David A., et al. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation.” American Sociological Review 51, no. 4 (1986): 464–81.

Snow, David A., and Robert D. Benford. “Mobilization Forum: Clarifying the Relationship between Framing and Ideology.” (PDF) Mobilization 5, no. 1 (2000): 55–60.

Johnston, Hank, and Pamela E. Oliver. “Mobilization Forum: Breaking the Frame.” (PDF) Mobilization 5, no. 1 (2000): 61–64.

Ferree, Myra Marx, and David Merrill. “Hot Movements, Cold Cognition: Thinking about Social Movements in Gendered Frames.” Contemporary Sociology 29, no. 3 (2000): 454–62.

Browse additional materials oriented towards nonprofits, e.g. FrameWorks Institute


Movement Identity

Book Report: Castells, Manuel. The Power of Identity: The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. ISBN: 9781405196871. [Preview with Google Books]

Watch Trailer for Un Poquito de Tanto Verdad.

Discuss final project proposals for next week: “Includes short overview (abstract), research question, case selection, methods, tools, detailed workplan. This is due Session 6.”

Methods Lab

Attention Analysis with PageOneX

Polletta, Francesca, and James Jasper. “Collective Identity and Social Movements.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 283–305.

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. “Transmedia Mobilization in the Popular Association of the Oaxacan Peoples, Los Angeles.” (PDF - 2.2MB) In Mediation and Protest Movements. Intellect Ltd, 2013. ISBN: 9781841506432. [Preview with Google Books]


Dyer-Witheford, Nick. “The New Combinations: Revolt of the Global Value-Subjects.” CR: The New Centennial Review 1, no. 3 (2001): 155–200.

Ray, R., and A. C. Korteweg. “Women’s Movements in the Third World: Identity, Mobilization and Autonomy.” Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 47–71.

Snow, David A., and Doug McAdam. “Identity Work Processes in the Context of Social Movements: Clarifying the Identity / Movement Nexus.” In Self, Identity, and Social Movements. University of Minnesota Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780816634088. [Preview with Google Books]

Taylor, Verta, and Nancy Whittier. “Collective Identity in Social Movement Organizations.” In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Yale University Press, 1992. ISBN: 9780300054866.


Final Project Proposals/Presentations

Final Project Proposals Due: Title, Abstract, Research question, Case selection, Methods, Detailed workplan.

Optional (but encouraged): preliminary annotated bibliography.

Presentation of final project proposals to the class for feedback.

No readings for this session.

Protest Cycles

Book report: Gerbaudo, Paolo. Tweets and the Streets_: Social Media and Contemporary Activism_. Pluto Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780745332482.

Kennedy, Michael D. “Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street, and Historical Frames: 2011, 1989, 1968.” Jadaliyya. October 11, 2011.

Soule, Sara A. “The Student Divestment Movement in the United States and Tactical Diffusion: The Shantytown Protest.” Social Forces 75, no. 3 (1997): 855–82.

Earl, Jennifer. “The Dynamics of Protest-Related Diffusion on the Web.” Information, Communication & Society 13, no. 2 (2010): 209–25.


Snow, David A., and Robert Benford. “Master Frames and Cycles of Protest.” In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Yale University Press, 1992. ISBN: 9780300054866.


What’s “New” about New Social Movements & New Media?

Guest Speaker: Anastasia Kavada, University of Westminster, Co-Director of the Master’s Program in Media, Campaigning, and Social Change.

Book Report: Buy at MIT Press Costanza-Chock, Sasha. Out of the Shadows, Into the Streets!: Transmedia Organizing and the Immigrant Rights Movement. MIT Press, 2014. ISBN: 9780262028202. [Preview with Google Books]

Kavada, Anastasia. Transnational Civil Society and Social Movements." (PDF)

Costanza-Chock, Sasha. “Mic Check! Media Practices in the Occupy Movement.” Social Movement Studies 11, no. 3–4 (2012): 375–85.

Rodríguez, Clemencia, Benjamin Ferron, et al. “Four Challenges in the Field of Alternative, Radical and Citizens’ Media Research.” Media Culture & Society 36, no. 2 (2014): 150–66.


Melucci, Alberto, and Leonardo Avritzer. “Complexity, Cultural Pluralism and Democracy: Collective Action in the Public Space.” Social Science Information 39, no. 4 (2000): 507–27.

Pichardo, Nelson. “New Social Movements: A Critical Review.” Annual Review of Sociology 23 (1997): 411–30.

Calhoun, Craig. "‘New Social Movements’ of the Early Nineteenth Century." Social Science History 17, no. 3 (1993): 385–428.

Melucci, Alberto. “The Symbolic Challenge of Contemporary Movements.” Social Research 52, no. 4 (1985): 789–816.

Lievrouw, Leah. “New Social Movements” and “Getting People on the “Street”: Mediated Mobilization.” In Alternative and Activist New Media. Polity, 2011. ISBN: 9780745641843. [Preview with Google Books]

Melucci, Alberto. “A Strange Kind of Newness: What’s ‘New’ in New Social Movements?” In New Social Movements: From Ideology to Identity. Temple University Press, 1994. ISBN: 9781566391870.

Melucci, Alberto. “The New Social Movements: A Theoretical Approach.” Social Science Information 19, no. 2 (1980): 199–226.


Movement Outcomes

First Draft Final Project Due (Abstract, Outline, Research question, Methods, Lit review, Preliminary findings)

Book report: Kate, Khatib, Margaret Killjoy, et al., eds. We Are Many: Reflections on Movement Strategy from Occupation to Liberation. AK Press, 2012. ISBN: 9781849351164.

Lab: Outcomes Matrix for your movement.

Giugni, Marco. “[The Outcomes of the Occupy Movement: Which Lessons Can We Draw from the Social Movement Literature?](\2012\01\20\the-outcomes-of-the-occupy-movement-which-lessons-can-we-draw-from-the-social-movement-literature)” Mobilizing Ideas. January 20, 2012.

Pastor, Manual, Jennifer Ito, and Rachel Rosner. Transactions, Transformations, Translations: Metrics That Matter for Building, Scaling and Funding Social Movements. (PDF - 2.1MB) PERE, 2011.

What the fuck has #Occupy done so far? (at Web Archive)

tad. “TXTmob and Twitter: A Reply to Nick Bilton.” Public Practice Studio. October 16, 2013.


Costanza-Chock, Sasha. “Mapping the Repertoire of Electronic Contention.” (DOC) In Representing Resistance: Media, Civil Disobedience and the Global Justice Movement. Praeger, 2003. ISBN: 9780313323850.

Staggenborg, Suzanne. “Can Feminist Organizations be Effective?” In Feminist Organizations: Harvest of the New Women’s Movement. Temple University Press, 1995. ISBN: 9781566392297.

Gamson, William. “Social Movements and Cultural Change.” In From Contention to Democracy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1998. ISBN: 9780847691067. [Preview with Google Books]

McAdam, Doug. “The Biographical Impact of Activism.” In How Social Movements Matter. University of Minnesota Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780816629152. [Preview with Google Books]

Burstein, Paul. “Social Movements and Public Policy.” In How Social Movements Matter. University of Minnesota Press, 1999. ISBN: 9780816629152. [Preview with Google Books]


Tactical Media

Hands-on: NewsJack!

Guest speaker: Alessandra Renzi, Assistant Professor in Emergent Media, Program in Media and Screen Studies and the Department of Art + Design, Northeastern University.

Book report: Critical Art Ensemble. Electronic Civil Disobedience. Autonomedia, 1996.

Open Discussion

Methods Lab

Gendered Advertising Remixer

Buy at MIT Press Boler, Megan. “Introduction.” In Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times. (PDF) The MIT Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780262514897. [Preview with Google Books]

Coleman, E. Gabriella. “Anonymous: From the LULZ to Collective Action,” The New Everyday, April 6, 2011.

Buy at MIT Press Renzi, Alessandra. “The Space of Tactical Media.” (PDF) In Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times. (PDF) The MIT Press, 2010. ISBN: 9780262514897. [Preview with Google Books]


Political remix videos

McIntosh, Jonathan. “ADmented Reality - Google Glasses Remixed with Google Ads.” April 5, 2012. YouTube.

———. “Buffy vs Edward: Twilight Remixed – [original version].” June 19, 2009. YouTube.

Faidley, Steve. “Etrade Baby Loses Everything.” August 9, 2011. YouTube.



Second Draft Final Project due (Complete Draft of Final Project)

Book report: Morozov, Evgeny. The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom. Public Affairs, 2012. ISBN: 9781610391061.

Lab: Project workshop

Watch and discuss Preempting Dissent

Tufecki, Zeynep. “Is The Internet Good or Bad? Yes.” Matter. February 12, 2014.

McPhail, Clark, David Schweingruber, and John McCarthy. “Policing Protest in the United States: 1960–1995.” (PDF - 1.1MB) In Policing Protest: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies. University of Minnesota Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780816630646.

Saito, Natsu Taylor. “Whose Liberty? Whose Security? The USA PATRIOT Act in the Context of COINTELPRO and the Unlawful Repression of Political Dissent.” (PDF) Oregon Law Review 81, no. 4 (2002): 1051–131.

Browse: Pepper Spray Cop Tumblrs, Pepper Spray Cop recursive metameme


Fernandez, Luis A. “Managing and Regulating Protest: Social Control and the Law.” In Policing Dissent: Social Control and the Anti-Globalization Movement. Rutgers University Press, 2008. ISBN: 9780813542157. [Preview with Google Books]

Della Porta, Donatella. Policing Protest_: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies_. University of Minnesota Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780816630646.


Transnational Movements

Guest speaker: Mine Gencel Bek, Visiting Fulbright Professor, MIT Comparative Media Studies.

Book report: Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. Activists Beyond Borders_: Advocacy Network in International Politics_. Cornell University Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780801484568. [Preview with Google Books]

Lab: Blogs & Final Projects

Bennett, W. Lance. “Social Movements beyond Borders: Organization, Communication, and Political Capacity in Two Eras of Transnational Activism.” In Transnational Protest and Global Activism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2004. ISBN: 9780742535879. [Preview with Google Books]

Schulz, Markus S. “Collective Action Across Borders: Opportunity Structures, Network Capacities, and Communicative Praxis in the Age of Advanced Globalization.” Sociological Perspectives 41, no. 3 (1998): 587–616.


McAdam, Doug, and Dieter Rucht. “The Cross-National Diffusion of Movement Ideas.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 528, no. 1 (1993): 56–74.

Rupp, Leila. “Constructing Internationalism: The Case of Transnational Women’s Organizations, 1888- 1945.” The American Historical Review 99, no. 5 (1994): 1571–600.

Passy, Florence. “Supranational Political Opportunities as a Channel of Globalization of Political Conflicts.” In Social Movements in a Globalizing World. Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. ISBN: 9780312219383.

Smith, Jackie. “Globalizing Resistance: The Battle of Seattle and the Future of Social Movements.” (PDF) Mobilization 6, no. 1 (2001): 1–19.


Movement Structure

Book report: Shirky, Clay. Here Comes Everybody_: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations._ Penguin, 2009. ISBN: 9780143114949.

Lab: Project workshop

Staggenborg, Suzanne. “The Consequences of Professionalization and Formalization in the Pro-Choice Movement.” American Sociological Review 53, no. 4 (1988): 585–605.

Graeber, David. “Enacting the Impossible: Making Decisions by Consensus.” In This Changes Everything_: Occupy Wall Street and the 99% Movement_. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2011. ISBN: 9781609945879. [Preview with Google Books]

Freeman, Jo (aka Joreen). “The Tyranny of Structurelessness.”


Schneider, Nathan. “No Leaders, No Violence: What Diversity of Tactics Means for Occupy Wall Street.” In This Changes Everything: Occupy Wall Street and the 99% Movement. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2011. ISBN: 9781609945879. [Preview with Google Books]

Rothschild-Whitt, Joyce. “The Collectivist Organization: An Alternative to Rational-Bureaucratic Models.” American Sociological Review 44, no. 4 (1979): 509–27.


Final Presentations

Final Paper due 11 days after Last Class Meeting.

No readings for this session.

Course Info

As Taught In
Spring 2014
Learning Resource Types
Written Assignments with Examples
Presentation Assignments with Examples