This page focuses on the course 14.73 The Challenges of World Poverty as it was taught by Professor Esther Duflo and Professor Abhijit Banerjee in Spring 2011.
This is a course for those who are interested in the challenge posed by massive and persistent world poverty, and are hopeful that economists might have something useful to say about this challenge. Questions such as the following are explored through lecture, discussion, reading, and writing:
- Is extreme poverty a thing of the past?
- Why do some countries grow quickly while others fall further behind?
- Are famines unavoidable?
- How do we make schools work for poor citizens?
- How do we deal with the disease burden?
- Is micro finance invaluable or overrated?
- Should we leave economic development to the market? Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)?
- Does foreign aid help or hinder?
Course Goals for Students
At the end of this course, students should have a good sense of the key questions asked by scholars interested in poverty today and hopefully a few answers as well.
Possibilities for Further Study/Careers
- 14.74 Foundations of Development Policy
- Majoring in economics
- Working with other development organizations at MIT (e.g., UROP for J-PAL, D-LAB, PKG Fellowships)
- Working for J-PAL
- Graduate school in economics
Below, Prof. Esther Duflo and Prof. Abhijit Banerjee explain the role of pop quizzes in the Spring 2011 offering of 14.73 The Challenges of World Poverty, as well as how the structure of the course has changed to a "flipped" classroom since the Spring 2011 offering.
Pop quizzes were a terrific tool to ensure that students came to class prepared, having read the readings and thought through some of the tougher concepts in the course on their own time. This way, students engaged with the class in and out of the classroom. Students also came to class prepared, and thus got much more out of lectures, as they could contribute their own thoughts and ideas based on the readings.
The “pop” element of the quizzes – also thought of as a quizzes randomly administered – was very effective at ensuring students did readings even when no quiz was administered.
Flipping the classroom
Since 2011, the course has shifted in its approach. All of the lectures were video taped in 2011. The course now employs a “flipped” model, where students are expected to watch the lectures at home on the edX platform. During this time, they answer "finger exercises" and homework questions online. This frees up class time for more interactive activities.
In particular, during the first half of class students are grouped into teams. They prepare a presentation together on a weekly case study (e.g., ways of alleviating poverty through health-based interventions), pulling from readings and the online lecture video.
Then, in the latter half of class, one group is randomly chosen (in real time) to present to the rest of the class. This random element ensures that all teams have an incentive to create a strong presentation, since anyone could be asked to present. At the same time, it would only be feasible for one group to present each day, given limited class time and class space constraints. Thus, the random draw allows us to operate within this logistical context while still providing incentives for all students to perform. Ah, the power of randomness!
The presentations are then evaluated by TAs. Each student is assigned both an individual and team grade. This grade is incorporated into each student’s final grade, along with their performance on online assignments, written assignments, and exams.
None, although knowledge of statistics can be helpful
- This course can be applied toward a Bachelor of Science in Economics as a restricted elective, but it is not required.
One semester per year
Breakdown by Year
Roughly 10% freshmen, 45% sophomores, 25% juniors, and 20% seniors
Breakdown by Major
Roughly 50% Economics, 20% Business / Management, and 30% other
Typical Student Background
- Analytical and logical problem-solving skills
- Basic knowledge of calculus and statistics (though not necessary)
- Interest in development, policy, management, economics, and social science
During an average week, students were expected to spend 12 hours on the course, roughly divided as follows:
- Two class sessions each week; 1.5 hours per class; 26 sessions total
- Attended by all students
- Taught by Prof. Esther Duflo (1st half of course) and Prof. Abhijit Banerjee (2nd half of course)
- Lecture style, supplemented by Powerpoint slides and occasional movies, intermingled with interactive Q & A from students in order to induce thought-provoking, real-time conversation and learning
- Pop quizzes
- Once a week for 1 hour
- Taught by graduate student teaching assistants
- Two separate sessions, each with a different instructor, to accommodate learning styles and schedules
Out of Class
Lead Instructors (Prof. Esther Duflo and Prof. Abhijit Banerjee)
- Responsible for course development and organization
- Lecture every week, with Prof. Duflo covering the first half of the course and Prof. Banerjee covering the second half of the course
- Review and edit all homework and mid term questions before they are made public
Teaching Assistants (TAs) are typically second to third year graduate students selected from the development track in the economics PhD program. TAs have often either completed an intensive development course in their first two years in the PhD program and/or have worked on research projects with the Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab, which is directed by Prof. Duflo and Prof. Banerjee.
- Lead recitations once a week, focusing on supplementary course topics and problem-solving. This includes statistics concepts, review sessions, going over homework problems, etc.
- Create all homework and exam questions and material for review by professors
- Hold weekly office hours