RES.CMS-001 | Spring 2021 | Non-Credit

Media Literacy in the Age of Deepfakes


This page contains a resource guide for topics discussed in the module. For the full list of resources, please see the module site

Shallowfakes, Deepfakes, and Disinformation

Admire Mare et. al., “Fake News and Cyber-Propaganda in Sub-Saharan Africa: Recentering the Research Agenda,” African Journalism Studies, 40:4, 1-12.

Robert Chesney and Danielle Citron, “Deep Fakes: A Looming Challenge for Privacy, Democracy, and National Security (July 14, 2018). 107 California Law Review 1753 (2019).

Eric Cheyfitz, The Disinformation Age: The Collapse of Liberal Democracy in the United States (New York: Routledge, 2017).

Brandi Collins-Dexter, “Canaries in the Coal Mine: COVID-19 Misinformation and Black Communities.” Technology and Social Change Project. Harvard Kennedy School’s Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and Public Policy. (2020, June 24).

Cailin O’Connor and James Owen Weatherall, The Misinformation Age: How False Beliefs Spread (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2020).

W. Lance Bennett and Steven Livingston, The Disinformation Age: Politics, Technology, and Disruptive Communication in the United States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020).

Johan Farkas, Post-Truth, Fake News and Democracy (New York: Routledge, 2019).

Deen Freelon and Chris Wells, Special Issue “Beyond Fake News: The Politics of Disinformation,” Political Communication, 37:2 (2020).

Craig Hight and Jane Roscoe, Faking It: Mock-documentary and the Subversion of Factuality (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002).

Lee McIntyre, Post-Truth (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2018).

Robert Mejia, Kay Beckermann, and Curtis Sullivan, eds. “White Lies: a Racial History of the (Post)Truth.” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 15: 2, 109-126.

Tiffany Karalis Noel, “Conflating Culture with COVID-19: Xenophobic Repercussions of a Global Pandemic,” Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2:1, 1-7.

Britt Paris and Joan Donovan, “Deepfakes and Cheap Fakes: The Manipulation of Audio and Visual Evidence,” Data & Society (September 2019).

Francesca Polletta and Jessica Callahan, “Deep Stories, Nostalgia Narratives, and Fake News: Storytelling in the Trump Era,” American Journal of Cultural Sociology, 5, 392-408 (2017).

House of Representatives, “Deepfake Report Act of 2019,” S.2065, October 28, 2019.

Alexandra Juhasz and Jesse Lerner, eds. F is for Phony: Fake Documentary and Truth’s Undoing (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006).

Nina Schick, Deepfakes: The Coming Infocalypse (New York: Twelve, 2020).

Kai Shu et. al., Disinformation, Misinformation, and Fake News in Social Media: Emerging Research Challenges and Opportunities (New York: Springer, 2020).

Michel-Rolp Trouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History (New York: Beacon Press, 2015).

Siva Vaidhyanathan, Antisocial Media: How Facebook Disconnects Us and Undermines Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Samuel C. Woollley and Philip N. Howard, Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Kevin Young, Bunk: The Rise of Hoaxes, Humbug, Plagiarists, Phonies, Post-Facts, and Fake News (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2017).

Melissa Zimdars and Kembrew McLeod, Fake News: Understanding Media and Misinformation in the Digital Age (Cambridge: MIT University Press, 2020).

Right-Wing Media Ecology

Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, and Hal Roberts, Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).

David Brock, and Ari Rabin-Havt, The Fox Effect: How Roger Ailes Turned a Network Into a Propaganda Machine (New York: Anchor Books, 2012).

Tarleton Gillespie, Custodians of the Internet: Platforms, Content Moderation, and the Hidden Decisions That Shape Social Media (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018).

Nicole Hemmer, Messengers of the Right: Conservative Media and the Transformation of American Politics (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016).

Heather Hendershot, Shaking the World for Jesus: Media and Conservative Evangelical Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Joseph N. Cappella, Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2008).

Reece Peck, Fox Populism: Branding Conservatism as Working Class (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019).

Jen Schradie, The Revolution That Wasn’t: How Digital Activism Favors Conservatives (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2019).

Cass R. Sunstein, #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018).

Khadijah Costley White, The Branding of Right-Wing Activism: The News Media and the Tea Party (Oxford: Oxford Press, 2018).

Emerging Technologies for the Civic Good

For more articles and books on interactive nonfiction in particular, see the I-Docs research network Bibliography.

Angela Aguayo, Documentary Resistance: Social Change and Participatory Media (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019).

Amarnath Amarasingam, ed., The Stewart/Colbert Effect: Essays on the Real Impacts of Fake News (New York: McFarland and Company, 2011).

Judith Aston, Sandra Gaudenzi, Mandy Rose, eds., I-Docs: The Evolving Practices of Interactive Documentary (New York: Wallflower Press, 2017).

Jessica Clark and Tracy Van Slyke, Beyond the Echo Chamber: Reshaping Politics Through Networked Progressive Media (London: The New Press, 2010).

Paolo Gerbaudo, Tweets and the Streets: Social Media and Contemporary Activism (Pluto Press, 2012).

Lynn Schofield Clark and Regina Marchi, Young People and the Future of News: Social Media and the Rise of Connective Journalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017).

K. Nash, C. Hight, and C. Summerhayes, eds., New Documentary Ecologies: Emerging Platforms, Practices, Discourses (London: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014).

Sasha Costanza-Chock, Design Justice: Community-Led Practices to Build the Worlds We Need (Cambridge: MIT, 2020).

Ruha Benjamin, Race After Technology: Abolitionist Tools for the New Jim Code (New York: Polity, 2019).

David Bollier, Viral Spiral: How the Commoners Built a Digital Republic of Their Own (New York: New Press, 2008).

Kris Fallon, Where Truth Lies: Digital Culture and Documentary Media After 9/11 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2019).

D. Fox Harrell, Phantasmal Media: An Approach to Imagination, Computation, and Expression (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013).

Eric Gordon and Paul Mihailidis eds. Civic Media: Technology, Design, Practice (Cambridge, MIT Press, 2016).

Bryon Hawk and David Rieder, and Ollie Oviedo, eds., Small Tech: The Culture of Digital Tools (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008).

Sarah J. Jackson, et. al. #HashtagActivism: Networks of Race and Gender Justice (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2020).

Henry Jenkins et. al., Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning, 2009.

Joe Lambert and Brooke Hessler, eds, Digital Storytelling: Capturing Lives, Creating Community (New York: Routledge, 2013).

Bronwen Low, Paula M. Salvia, and Chloe Brushwood Rose, Community-based Media Pedagogies: Relationship Practices of Listening in the Commons (New York: Routledge, 2016).

Irani Lilly, “Hackathons and the Making of Entrepreneurial Citizenship,” Science, Technology, and Human Values 40 (2015).

Jessa Lingel, Digital Countercultures and the Struggle for Community (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2017).

John McCarthy and Peter Wright, Taking [A]Part: The Politics and Aesthetics of Participation in Experience-Centered Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015).

Paul Mihailidis, Civic Media Literacies: Re-Imagining Human Connections in an Age of Digital Abundance (New York: Routledge, 2018).

Annamaria Motrescu-Mayes, Amateur Media and Participatory Cultures: Film, Video, and Digital Media (New York: Routledge, 2019).

Don Norman, The Design of Everyday Things (New York: Basic Books, 2013).

Stefano Odorico, The Interactive Documentary Form: Aesthetics, Practice, and Research (New York: Columbia, University Press, 2020).

Victor Pickard and Guobin Yang, eds., Media Activism in the Digital Age (New York: Routledge, 2017).

Matt Ratto and Megan Boler, eds., DIY Citizenship: Critical Making and Social Media (Cambridge, MIT Press, 2014).

Jamie Susskind, Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018).

Zeynep Tufekci, Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2018).

William Uricchio, “Augmenting Reality: The Markers, Memories, and Meanings Behind Today’s AR,” Leonardo Electronic Almanac vol. 22, 4.

Gustav Verhulsdonck and Marohang Limbu, eds., Digital Rhetoric and Global Literacies: Communication Modes and Digital Practices in the Networked World (IGI Global: Hershey, PA, 2013).

Jenny Weight, The Participatory Documentary Cookbook: Community Documentary Using Social Media (Melbourne: Australia: RMIT University, 2012).

Patricia Zimmermann, Documentary Across Platforms: Reverse Engineering Media, Place, and Politics (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2019).

Organizations for Provenance, Detection, and Fact Checking

Media Literacy & Policy Advocasy

Open-Access Video Collections

Internet Archive: global film, television, radio, photography, with a focus on nonfiction.

Library of Congress Digital Collections: short and long-form video from LOC.

A/V Geeks: educational film, advertising, home movies, industrial media.

Bay Area TV Archive: 6,000+ hours of Northern CA newsfilm, documentaries, raw footage.

BBC Archive: BBC multi-media content.

Bundesarchiv German Federal Film Archive: 3,500+ digitized films, 1914-99.

Colonial Film Database: 350+ films related to the British Empire.

Eye Filmmuseum, Netherlands: Dutch fiction, nonfiction, experimental.

Home Movie Archives Database: home movies across American archives.

Instituto Luce Collection: newsreels, documentaries, photography of Italy, Mediterranean.

Korean National Archives: 150+ streaming films from KNA’s YouTube channel.

Lantern Media History Digital Library: film, radio, tv periodicals throughout 20th-21st century.

Media Burn Independent Video Archive: community, advocacy, nonfiction, experimental video.

American Archive of Public Broadcasting: PBS/WGBH nonfiction, animation, newscasts. 

Films for Action: global advocacy, activist, and environmental, community media.

National Film Archive of Australia: streaming content from the NFAA archive.

NFB of Canada Indigenous Cinema Collection: films made between 1917-2020.

National Film Board of Canada Streaming Collections: 4,000+ titles available, all genres.

Public Domain Movies Website: all genres (comedy, drama, horror, etc.) in public domain.

UbuWeb Film and Video: experimental and art film, organized by artist.

UNESCO Digital Archives: digital content related to the films, photos, publications of 

Women Behind the Camera: 20th century women filmmakers, Northeast Archives.

Synthetic Media Case Studies

Civic Art and Outreach:


Political Satire:

Discussion of deepfake pornography and its consequences:

Witness Protection:

Public History: