WGS.225J | Spring 2023 | Undergraduate

Science of Race, Sex, and Gender



Session 1: Introduction

No readings

Session 2: Definitions: Sex and Gender

Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 1993. The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough. The Sciences, March–April 1993: 20–24. DOI: 10.1002/j.2326-1951.1993.tb03081.x

Valentine, Catherine G., Mary Nell Trautner, and Joan Z. Spade. 2008. The Kaleidoscope of Gender. “Introduction.” Sage. ISBN: 9781506389097. [Preview on Google Books.] 

Hubbard, Ruth. 1982. “Have Only Men Evolved?” In Biological Woman–the Convenient Myth: A Collection of Feminist Essays and a Comprehensive Bibliography, ed. Ruth Hubbard, Mary Sue Henifin, and Barbara Fried. Schenkman Books, 17–42. ISBN: 9780870737022.

Session 3: Definitions: Race

Roberts, Dorothy E. 2011. Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-First Century. “Introduction.” The New Press. ISBN: 9781595588340. [Preview with Google Books.]

Omi, Michael, and Howard Winant. 1994. “Racial Formation.” In Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd edition. Routledge, 53–76. ISBN: 9780415520317. [Preview on Google Books.]

Smedley, Audrey. 1999. "‘Race’ and the Construction of Human Identity." American Anthropologist 100(3): 690–702.

Session 4: Definitions: Intersectionality and Science

Weinstein, Chanda Prescod. 2016. “Intersectionality as a Blueprint for Postcolonial Scientific Community Building.” Medium. January 24, 2016. 

Davis, K., 2008. “Intersectionality as Buzzword: A Sociology of Science Perspective on What Makes a Feminist Theory Successful.” Feminist Theory 9(1): 67–85. DOI: 10.1177/14647001080863.

Session 5: How to Think about Science

Marks, Jonathan. 2011. “Just How Different Is Different? (On Race).” In The Alternative Introduction to Biological Anthropology. Oxford University Press, 236–255. ISBN: 9780190490997.

Fried, Barbara. 1982. “Boys Will Be Boys Will Be Boys: The Language of Sex and Gender.” Lexicographica 36. 2020. DOI: 10.1515/lex-2020-0011. 

Herzig, Rebecca M. 2001. “What about “Biology?”: Building Sciences into Introductory Women’s Studies Curricula." In Feminist Science Studies: A New Generation, ed. Maralee Mayberry, Banu Subramaniam, and Lisa Weasel. Routledge, 183–191. ISBN: 9780203614266. [Preview with Google Books.]

Richardson, Sarah S. 2008. “When Gender Criticism Becomes Standard Scientific Practice: The Case of Sex Determination Genetics.” In Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering, ed. Londa Schiebinger. Stanford University Press, 22–42. ISBN: 9780804758154. 

Part 1: Histories of Race

Session 6: Pre-scientific Conceptions of Race

Müller-Wille, Staffan. 2007. “Figures of Inheritance, 1650–1850.” In Heredity Produced: At the Crossroads of Biology, Politics, and Culture, 1500–1870, ed. Staffan Müller-Wille and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. MIT Press, 177–204. ISBN: 9780262134767. [Preview with Google Books.]

Mazzolini, Renato G. 2007. “Las Castas: Interracial Crossing and Social Structure, 1770-1835.” In Heredity Produced: At the Crossroads of Biology, Politics, and Culture, 1500-1870, ed. Staffan Müller-Wille and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. MIT Press, 349–374. ISBN: 9780262134767. [Preview with Google Books.]

Session 7: Nineteenth-Century Racial Science

Gould, Stephen J. 1996 (1981.) The Mismeasure of Man. Norton. Excerpts. ISBN: 9780393340402. [Preview with Google Books.]

Session 8: Eugenics

Proctor, Robert. 1990. “Destruction of ‘Lives Not Worth Living.’” In Racial Hygiene. Harvard University Press. ISBN: 9780674745780.

Duster, Troy. 2003. Backdoor to Eugenics. Routledge. Chapters 1 & 3. ISBN: 9780415946742.

Stepan, Nancy Leys. 1991. “Eugenics in Latin America: Its Origins and Institutional Ecology, Racial Poisons & The Politics of Heredity in Latin America in the 1920s.” In The Hour of Eugenics: Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America. Cornell University Press, 35–101. ISBN: 9780801497957.

UNESCO. 1950. Statement on Race.

Film: The Lynchburg Story. 1993. 

Session 9: Materiality of Race

Wailoo, Keith. 2001. “Stigma, Race, and Disease in 20th Century America: A Historical Overview.” The Lancet 367(9509): 531–533. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68186-5.

Kreiger, Nancy. 2000. “Refiguring “Race”: Epidemiology, Racialized Biology, and Biological Expressions of Race Relations.International Journal of Health Services 30(1): 211–216. DOI: 10.2190/672J-1K6QT-9N7U.

M’Charek, Amade. 2013. “Beyond Fact or Fiction: On the Materiality of Race in Practice.” Cultural Anthropology 28(3): 420–442. DOI: 10.1111/cuan.12012.

Film: Race: The Power of an Illusion: The House We Live In (Part III).

Session 10: Racial Classifications at the Intersection of Law and Science

Haney Lopez, Ian. 1996. “Ozawa and Thind.” In White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. New York University Press. ISBN: 9780814736944. [Preview with Google Books.]

Bowker, Geoffrey C., and Susan Leigh Star. 2000. “The Case of Race Classification and Reclassification under Apartheid.” In Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. MIT Press, 60–64, 195–225. ISBN: 9780262269070. [Preview with Google Books.]

Part 2: Histories of Sex/Gender

Session 11: Making Sex

Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. “Destiny is Anatomy”. In Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. Harvard University Press, 25–62. ISBN: 9780674543553.

Session 12: Sex, Gender, Animals

Haraway, Donna. 1989. “Apes in Eden, Apes in Space.” In Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. Routledge, 133–156. ISBN 9780415902946. [Preview with Google Books.]

Session 13: Gender, Sex, and Race in Nineteenth-Century Medicine

Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 1995. “Gender, Race, and Nation: The Comparative Anatomy of ‘Hottentot’ Women in Europe, 1815–1817.” In Deviant Bodies: Critical Perspectives on Difference in Science and Popular Culture, ed. J. Terry and J. Urla. Indiana University Press. ISBN: 9780253209757.

Kapsalis, Terri. 1997. “Mastering the Female Pelvis: Race and the Tools of Reproduction.” In Public Privates: Performing Gynecology from Both Ends of the Speculum. Duke, 31–59. ISBN: 9780822319214. [Preview with Google Books.]

Session 14: Sex in the Natural Order & Session 15: Gender and Race, Conjoined

Schiebinger, Londa. 1991. “Chapter 7: More Than Skin Deep”, and “Chapter 8: The Triumph of Complementarity.” In The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science. Harvard University Press, 160–213. ISBN: 9780674576254.

Part 3: Sex/Gender, Race, and Careers in Science

Session 16: Sex, Gender, Scientific Careers, and Epistemology

Committee on Women Faculty in the School of Science (MIT). 1999. “A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT.”

Urry, Megan. 2008. “Are Photons Gendered? Women in Physics and Astronomy.” In Gendered Innovations in Science and Engineering, ed. Londa Schiebinger. Stanford, 150–164. ISBN: 9781503626997. 

Sur, Abha. 2011. “Dispersed Radiance: Women Scientists in Raman’s Laboratory.” In Dispersed Radiance: Caste, Gender, and Modern Science in India. Navayana Publishing, 179–219. ISBN: 9788189059323. [View on WorldCat.]

Session 17: Race, Ethnicity, Scientific Careers, and Epistemology I

Fouché, Rayvon. 2003. “Introduction,” “Inventing the Myth of Racial Equality,” and “Liars and Thieves: Granville T. Woods and the Process of Invention.” In Black Inventors in the Age of Segregation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1–81. ISBN: 9780801882708. [Preview with Google Books.]

Lee, Felicia R. 2007. “Reclaiming a Black Research Scientist’s Forgotten Legacy.” New York Times, February 6, 2007.

Malcolm, Shirley. 1993. “Increasing the Participation of Black Women in Science and Technology.” In The “Racial” Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future, ed. Sandra Harding. Indiana University Press, 249–253. ISBN: 9780253208101. [Preview with Google Books.]

Session 18: Race, Ethnicity, Scientific Careers, and Epistemology II

Masco, Joseph. 2002. “Lie Detectors: On Secrets and Hypersecurity in Los Alamos.” Public Culture 14(3):441–467. DOI: 10.1215/08992363-14-3-441.

Kumar, Amitava. 2001. “Temporary Access: The Indian H-1B Worker in the United States”. In Technicolor: Race, Technology, and Everyday Life, ed. Alondra Nelson and Thuy Linh N. Tu with Alicia Headlam Hines. New York University Press, 76–87. [Preview with Google Books.] ISBN: 9780814736043. 

Part 4: Sex/Gender, Race, and Science Now

Session 19: Sex Cells and Sex Sells

Almeling, Rene. 2011. “Introduction,” “Characterizing the Material,” and “Producing Eggs and Sperm.” In Sex Cells: The Medical Market for Eggs and Sperm. University of California Press, 1–51, 87–109. ISBN: 9780520270961. [Preview with Google Books.]

Moore, Lisa Jean. 2007. “In the Beginning, There Was Sperm.” In Sperm Counts: Overcome by Man’s Most Precious Fluid. New York University Press, 7–15. ISBN: 9780814795620. [Preview with Google Books.]

Roy, Modhumita, and Mary Thompson. 2019. “Introduction.” In The Politics of Reproduction: Adoption, Abortion, and Surrogacy in the Age of Neoliberalism ed. Modhumita Roy and Mary Thompson. Columbus: OSU, 1–24. ISBN: 9780814255582.

Session 20: Sexuality, Hetero, Homo, and Beyond

George Chauncy, Jr. 1989. “From Sexual Inversion to Homosexuality: Medicine and the Changing Conceptualizations of Female Deviance.” In Passion and Power: Sexuality in History, ed. K. Peiss, C. Simon, and R. Padgug. ISBN: 9780877226376. [Preview with Google Books.]

Kessler, Suzanne. 1990. “The Medical Construction of Gender: Case Management of Intersexed Infants,” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 16: 3–26.

Chase, Cheryl. 1998. “Hermaphrodites with Attitude: Mapping the Emergence of Intersex Political Activism.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 4(2): 189–212. DOI: 10.1215/10642684-4-2-189. 

Film: Icarus Films. One in 2000. 2006.

Session 21: Race and Medicine Now

Nelson, Alondra. 2011. “Serving the People, Body and Soul.” In Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Fight Against Medical Discrimination. University of Minnesota Press. 1–22. ISBN: 9780816676484. [Preview with Google Books.]

Montoya, Michael. 2007. “Bioethnic Conscription: Genes, Race, and Mexicana/o Ethnicity in Diabetes Research.” Cultural Anthropology 22(1): 94–128.

Kahn, Jonathan. 2006. “Patenting Race.” Nature Biotechnology 24(11): 1349.

Fujimura, Joan H., and Ramya Rajagopalan. 2011. “Different Differences: The Use of ‘Genetic Ancestry’ versus Race in Biomedical Human Genetic Research.” Social Studies of Science 41: 5–30. DOI: 10.1177/0306312710379170.

Session 22: Reprogramming Race I

TallBear, Kimberly. 2003. “DNA, Blood, and Racializing the Tribe.” Wicazo Sa Review 18(1): 81–107 

Sur, Abha, and Samir Sur. 2008. “In Contradiction Lies the Hope: Genes, Caste, Race, and Identity Politics.” In Tactical Biopolitics , ed. Kavita Phillips and Beatriz da Costa. MIT Press. ISBN: 9780262514910. [Preview with Google Books.]

Film: African American Lives. “Episode 4: Beyond the Middle Passage.”

Session 23: Remixing Sex

Thompson, Charis. 2001. “Strategic Naturalizing: Kinship in an Infertility Clinic.” In Relative Values: Reconfiguring Kinship Studies, ed. Sarah Franklin and Susan McKinnon. Duke University Press, 175–202. ISBN: 9780822383222. [Preview with Google Books.]

Bharadwaj, Aditya. 2012. “The Other Mother: Supplementary Wombs and the Surrogate State in India.” In Reproductive Technologies as Global Form: Ethnographies of Knowledge, Practices, and Transnational Encounters, ed. Michi Knecht, Maren Klotz, and Stefan Beck. Campus Verlag. 139–160. ISBN: 9783593391007. [Preview with Google Books.]

Franklin, Sarah. 2007. “Sex.” In Dolly Mixtures: The Remaking of Genealogy. Duke University Press, 19–45. ISBN: 9780822389651. [Preview with Google Books.]

Sessions 24–26: Class Presentations and Sum Up

No readings