### Readings

- Notes, Chapter 7: Processes (PDF - 1.4 MB)
- Gallager, Robert G. “Claude E. Shannon: A Retrospective on His Life, Work, and Impact.”
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory*47 (November 2001): 2681–2695.

### Assignments

### Resources

#### Technical

- Shannon, Claude E. “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.”
*Bell System Technical Journal*27 (July and October 1948): 379–423 (Part I), 623–656 (Part II). These seminal papers are available in several forms.- Original papers (PDF), with corrections but without Shannon’s 1949 modifications.
- Shannon, Claude E., and Warren Weaver.
*The Mathematical Theory of Communication*. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1998. ISBN: 9780252725463. (Incorporating a number of modifications and corrections by Shannon.) - Shannon, Claude E. “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.” 50th Anniversary Edition, printed for the 1998
*IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory*. New York, NY: IEEE Press, August 16–21, 1998. ISBN: 9780780350007. (Based on 1949 book, with corrections.) - Reprinted in
*Key Papers in the Development of Information Theory*. Edited by D. Slepian. New York, NY: IEEE Press, 1974. - Reprinted in
*Claude Elwood Shannon: Collected Papers*. Edited by N. J. A. Sloane, and A. D. Wyner. New York, NY: IEEE Press, 1993. ISBN: 9780780304345.Because he treated a general case, Shannon was able to distinguish loss and noise, in the way done in 6.050J/2.110J. Many others treat only channels with similar inputs and outputs in which case often L = N so it may not be obvious why they are different concepts.

#### Historical

- Claude E. Shannon (1916–2001). Obituary, MIT News, Feb 28, 2001.
- Gallager, Robert G. “Claude E. Shannon: A Retrospective on His Life, Work, and Impact.”
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory*47 (November 2001): 2681–2695. - The process model is also known as Markov Processes or Markov Chains after Andrei A. Markov (1856–1922).

#### General Technical Books

There are many excellent texts on communications, most of which assume a familiarity with mathematics beyond introductory calculus. Some have treatments of the discrete memoryless channel, but not with the same emphasis given here. Here are a few:

- Gallager, Robert G.
*Information Theory and Reliable Communications*. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1968. ISBN: 9780471290483.

One of the early textbooks, designed for first-year graduate students. - Hambley, Allan R.
*An Introduction to Communication Systems*. New York, NY: W. H. Freeman, 1989. ISBN: 9780716781844. - Cover, Thomas M., and Joy A. Thomas.
*Elements of Information Theory*. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006. ISBN: 9780471241959.

Aimed at university seniors and first-year graduate students. One of several excellent books of that era. - Haykin, Simon.
*Communication Systems*. 4th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000. ISBN: 9780471178699.