Readings are also listed by sessions in the table below.

Background Readings

Amoroso, A., et al. “Improving on success: what treating the urban poor in America can teach us about improving antiretroviral programmes in Africa.” AIDS 18, supplement 3 (2004): S39-S43.

Burnett, A., et al. “Caring for people with HIV in Zambia: are traditional healers and formal health workers willing to work together?” AIDS Care 11, no. 4 (1999): 481-491.

Chitah, M. B., and T. Bossert. “Decentralisation of Health Systems in Zambia: Resource Allocation and District Performance.” Paper RP179. Takemi Program in International Health, Harvard School of Public Health. (PDF)

Free, M. J. “Achieving appropriate design and widespread use of health care technologies in the developing world. Overcoming obstacles that impede the adaptation and diffusion of priority technologies for primary health care.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 85, supplement 1 (2004): S3-S13.

Fylkenses, K., et al. “Studying dynamics of the HIV epidemic: population-based data compared with sentinel surveillance in Zambia.” AIDS 12 (1998): 1227-1234.

Garbus, L. “Country AIDS Policy Analysis Project: HIV/AIDS in Zambia.” AIDS Policy Research Center, University of California San Francisco, March 2003.

Glick, P. “Scaling up HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in Africa: What Can Evaluation Studies Tell Us About Potential Prevention Impacts?” Evaluation Review 29, no. 4 (August 2005): 331-357.

Grassly, N. C. “The economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in Zambia.” AIDS 17 (2003): 1039-1044.

Jones, D. L., et al. “Influence of Partner Participation on Sexual Risk Behavior Reduction Among HIV-Positive Zambian Women.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 82, no. 3, supplement 4 (2005): iv92-100.

Kimuna, S. R., and Y. K. Djamba. “Wealth and Extramarital Sex Among Men in Zambia.” International Family Planning Perspectives 31, no. 2 (2005): 83-89.

Kitahata, M. M., et al. “Comprehensive health care for people infected with HIV in developing countries.” BMJ 325 (October 26, 2002): 954-957.

Ndubani, P., et al. “Understanding young men’s sexual health and prospects for sexual behaviour change in rural Zambia.” Scand J Public Health 31 (2003): 291-296.

Omari, A., et al. “Infant-feeding practices of mothers of known HIV status in Lusaka, Zambia.” Health Policy and Planning 18, no. 2 (2003): 156-162.

Perez, F., et al. “Implementing a rural programme of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Zimbabwe: first 18 months of experience.” Tropical Medicine and International Health 9, no. 7 (July 2004): 774-83.

Perez, F., et al. “Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: evaluation of a pilot programme in a district hospital in rural Zimbabwe.” BMJ 329 (November 13, 2004): 1147-1150.

Slonim-Nevo, V., and L. Mukuka. “AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Among Adolescents in Zambia.” AIDS and Behavior 9, no. 2 (June 2005): 223-32.

Stringer, E. M., et al. “Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Africa: successes and challenges in scaling-up a nevirapine-based program in Lusaka, Zambia.” AIDS 17 (2003): 1377-1382.

Baseline Assessment Tools for Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV.” Family Health International, August 2003.

“Copperbelt Health Education Project (CHEP): The In-School Program.” In Education and HIV/AIDS: Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programmes. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 2003. (PDF - 3.0MB)

Scaling up Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings: Treatment Guidelines for a Public Health Approach.” Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004.

Standards for quality HIV care: a tool for quality assessment, improvement, and accreditation.” WHO Consultation Meeting on the Accreditation of Health Service Facilities for HIV Care_._ Geneva, Switzerland: 2004. ISBN: 9241592559.

“Voices from Zambian communities: Experiences of HIV/AIDS-related treatment in urban and rural settings.” International HIV/AIDS Alliance, 2004.

Zambia Nutrition Guidelines for Care and Support of People Living with HIV/AIDS.” Zambia National Food and Nutrition Commission, 2004.

Readings by Sessions

Section 1: Introduction
1 Introduction Syllabus, Organization of Course

Overview of the Seminar and Expectations

Introduction to Healthcare in Lusaka

UNZA students’ perspective on HIV/AIDS. (PDF)

Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator. “Country Profile - Zambia.”

2 Guest Speaker: Dr. Bruce Walker Health and Challenges in Developing Countries

Funding and Main Organizations in International Health

Contribution of the Students/Group Discussion

Section 2: Module 1 - Anti-retroviral Therapy (ART) Access and Efficacy
3 Introduction to Module Topic: ART Access and Efficacy Background Information

Videos Presentations (from UNZA)

Assign Sub-topic to Each team

Guest Speaker: Bill Rodriguez

Ministry of Health, Republic of Zambia. “National HIV/AIDS Policy.” May 2004, Final Draft.

Ritzenthaler, Robert. “Delivering Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings: Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda.” Family Health International, August 2005. (PDF - 4.2MB) (Courtesy of FHI.)

WHO/UNAIDS Zambia Consultation. “Emergency scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: technical and operational recommendations to achieve 3 by 5.” Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004.

Kombe, G., and O. Smith. “The Costs of Anti-Retroviral Treatment in Zambia.” Technical Report 029. Bethesda, MD: The Partners for Health Reformplus Project, Abt Associates Inc., October 2003. (PDF) (Courtesy of Abt Associates.)

4 Defining the Problems within Sub-topics Round Table Discussion of Findings from Students

In Teams: Group Discussion and Brainstorming

List of the Problems Related to the Sub-topic

In-class Exercise: Microsoft® PowerPoint® Presentation of Sub-topic Analysis

Mentors: Marc Mitchell, Bill Rodriguez

_For Subtopic 1.1: Access to ART
Chi, B. H., et al. “Perceptions toward HIV, HIV screening, and the use antiretroviral medications: a survey of maternity-based health care providers in Zambia.” International Journal of STD and AIDS 15 (2004): 685-690.

Chisenga, M., et al. “Factors Affecting the Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Women in Lusaka, Zambia.” J Hum Lact 21, no. 3 (2005): 266-75.

Nsutebu, E. F., et al. “Scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB home-based care: lessions from Zambia.” Health Policy and Planning 16, no. 3 (2001): 240-7.

Editorial. “ICN International Perspectives: Nurses in Zambia gain access to antiretroviral treatment.” International Nursing Review 51 (2004): 6-12.

“Supporting Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Through Home-Based Care.” Project Concern International. (PDF) (Courtesy of Project Concern International. Used with permission.)

“Stigmatization, Discrimination in the Context of Care.” Health & Development Networks, 2001.

_For Subtopic 1.2: Diagnostics
Forum for Collaborative HIV Research. “Transfer of HIV Monitoring Technologies into Resource-Poor Settings: Moving the Field Forward.” Report from February 26, 2005 workshop, Washington DC. (PDF - 1.0MB)

WHO Consultation on Technical and Operational Recommendations for Scale-Up of Laboratory Services and Monitoring HIV Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings (2004: Geneva, Switzerland).” Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press, 2005. ISBN: 9241593687.

Landay, Alan. “Summary of Findings for CD4 Assays.” Presentation for Workshop on HIV Monitoring and Diagnostic Technology Transfer to Resource Poor Settings. Washington DC, April 22, 2002. (PDF - 1.0MB)

5 Identify Solutions for Problems Round Table Discussion of Proposals from Students

Brainstorming for Additional Solutions in Teams

Presentation of Each Team

Choice of Problems and Solutions for the Outline Proposal

In-class Exercise

Mentors: Bill Rodriguez, Saidi Kapiga

6 Proposals for Solutions Presentation of the Outlined Proposal

Feedback of the Participants (Instructors, Students, and Invited Guests)

Evaluator: Bill Rodriguez

Guest Lecturer: Jonathon Rosen

Section 3: Module 2 - Continuum of Care
7 Introduction to Module Topic: Continuum of Care Background Information

Videos Presentations

Assign Sub-topic to Each Team

Guest Speaker: Dr. Joia Mukherjee

Lessons from the Matero Compound, a template for community-based healthcare. (PDF)
8 Defining the Sub-topics Individual Presentations from Students

Group Discussion and Brainstorming

List of the Problems Related to the Sub-topic

In-class Exercise

Mentors: Marc Mitchell, Saidi Kapiga

For Subtopic 2.1: Linkage

Heywood, A., E. Nielsen, and S. Orzeszyna. “Assessment of the Zambian Health Management Information System.” Euro Health Group , 2005.

_For Subtopic 2.2: Support
Wolff, B., et al. “Evaluation of a home-based voluntary counselling and testing intervention in rural Uganda.” Health Policy and Planning 20, no. 2 (2005): 109-116.

9 Identify Solutions for Problems Presentation of Each Team

Brainstorming for Additional Solutions

Choice of Problems and Solutions for the Outline Proposal

In-class Exercise

Mentor: Saidi Kapiga

For Subtopic 2.2: Support

Walkowiak, H., and M. Gabra. Commodity Management in VCT Programs: A Planning Guide. Arlington, VA: RPMPlus Program, Management Sciences for Health, 2002. (PDF) (Courtesy of RPMPlus and MSH.)

Boswell, D., and R. Baggaley. VCT Toolkit – Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Young People: A Summary Overview. Arlington, VA: Family Health International, 2002. (PDF) (Courtesy of FHI.)

10 Proposals for Solutions Presentation of the Outline Proposal

Feedback of the Participants (Instructors, Students, and Invited Guests)

Evaluators: Marc Mitchell, Bill Rodriguez

Section 4: Proposal Development/Conclusion
11 Guest Speaker Proposal Development

Out of Class Team Meetings

12 Proposal Development Stakeholder Analysis

Participatory Development

13 Proposal Development Project Evaluation

Grant and Proposal Writing

14 Presentation of the Proposal Presentation of Each Group Final Proposal

Evaluation of the Seminar

Students Goals after the Seminar

Learning Resource Types
Written Assignments with Examples