|1||Who Develops Breakthrough New Products and Services - Users or Manufacturers?||von Hippel, Eric. "Overview" and "Users as Innovators." Chapters 1 and 2 in The Sources of Innovation. Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN: 0-19-504085-6.|
|2||Systematic Generation of Ideas for "Breakthrough" New Products and Services - the "Lead User Method"||Brief videos on the lead user method in practice, available to students on the Sloan class server. |
von Hippel, Eric, Stefan Thomke, and Mary Sonnack. "Creating Breakthroughs at 3M." Harvard Business Review (Sept-Oct 1999): 3-9. Reprint No. 99510.
|3||Finding out What Users Really Need: The "Sticky Information" and "Learning by Doing" Problems||von Hippel, Eric. "Sticky Information and the Locus of Problem Solving: Implications for Innovation." Management Science 40, no. 4 (Apr 1994): 429-439. |
von Hippel, Eric, and Marcie Tyre. "How 'Learning by Doing' is Done: Problem Identification in Novel Process Equipment." Research Policy (Jan 1995): 1-12.
|4||Systematic Generation of Incremental Improvements to Existing Products and Services |
Traditional Marketing Research Concept Generation Techniques
|Dahan, Ely, and John Hauser. "Product Development - Managing a Dispersed Process." MIT Sloan School of Management working paper, 2003: 9-25.|
|5||"Brainstorming" and Creativity Training Techniques Lecturer: Jeff Mauzy, Principal, Synectics, Inc. Cambridge, MA||Gordon, William. "The Operational Mechanisms." Chapter 2 in Synectics, the Development of Creative Capacity. Collier Books, 1961: 34-56. ISBN: 0060324309.|
|6||The MIT Media Lab Approach: "Build It and They Will Come." Lecturer: Joe Paradiso, MIT Media Lab||Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. "The Flow of Creativity." Chapter 5 in Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. HarperCollins Publishers, 1996. ISBN: 0-06-017133-2.|
|7||Determining Average Users' Needs Ethnographically and Then Developing Solutions Lecturer: Dr. Harry West, VP, Design Continuum||Leonard, Dorothy, and Jeffrey F. Rayport. "Spark Innovation through Empathic Design." Harvard Business Review (Nov-Dec 1997). Reprint No. 97606.|
|8||Why Users Share Innovations with Each Other and with Manufacturers: Informal Know-How Trading, Collective Invention and Voluntary Revealing||Allen, Robert C. "Collective Invention." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 4, no. 1 (Mar 1983): 1-24. |
Schrader, Stephan. "Informal Technology Transfer Between Firms: Cooperation Through Information Trading." Research Policy 20 (1991): 153-170.
|9||Toolkits for User Innovation Lecturer: John Wright, International Flavors and Fragrances|| Brand, Stewart. "'Nobody Cares What You Do In There': The Low Road." Chapter 3 in How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They're Built. Viking Penguin, 1994: 24-33. ISBN: 0-670-83515-3. |
Thomke, Stefan, and Eric von Hippel. Customers as Innovators: A New Way to Create Value. Harvard Business Review (Apr 2002): 74-81. Reprint No. R0304F.
|10||User Innovation Communities - No Manufacturer Required||Franke, Nik, and Sonali Shah. "How Communities Support Innovative Activities: An Exploration of Assistance and Sharing Among End-Users." Research Policy 32 (2003): 157-178. |
von Hippel, Eric. "Innovation by User Communities: Learning from Open Source Software." MIT Sloan Management Review 42, 4 (Summer 2001): 82-86. Reprint No. 4248.
|11||Resistance to Adopting Radically New Innovations - Even in Firms that "Want To"||Groopman, Jerome. "Annals of Medicine: The Reeve Effect." The New Yorker, Nov 2003, 82-93. |
Morrison, Elting E. "Gunfire at Sea." Chapter 2 in Men, Machines and Modern Times. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966. ISBN: 0-262-13025-4.