ES.010 | Spring 2013 | Undergraduate

Chemistry of Sports




Talk about triathlon

 Fitzgerald, Matt. Essential Week-by-Week Training Guide: Plans, Scheduling Tips, and Workout Goals for Triathletes of All Levels. Grand Central Life & Style, 2006. ISBN: 9780446696760. [Read Chapters 1 and 2. Optional: read chapters 6–11 according to your specific level and event.]

McCrann, Patrick. “8 Week Training Plan.” Triathlon Magazine, June 2011.


Chemistry review

Injury prevention


Woods, Krista, Phillip Bishop, et al. “Warm-up and Stretching in the Prevention of Muscular Injury.” Sports Medicine 37, no. 12 (2007): 1089–99.

Witvrouw, Erik, Nele Mahieu, et al. “Stretching and Injury Prevention: An Obscure Relationship.” Sports Medicine 34, no. 7 (2004): 443–9.


Hreljac, Alan. “Impact and Overuse Injuries in Runners.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 36, no. 5 (2004): 845–9.

Cosca, David. D., and Franco Navazio. “Common Problems in Endurance Athletes.” American Family Physician 76, no. 2 (2007): 237–44.

American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. “Conditioning Tips.” (PDF - 1.5MB) 2011.

Heiderscheit, Bryan C., Marc A. Sherry, et al. “Hamstring Strain Injuries:Recommendations for Diagnosis, Rehabilitation, and Injury Prevention.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 40, no. 2 (2010): 67. 

Muscles of the Human Body

Bones of the Human Body

3 Training your body


Charlton, G. A., and M. H. Crawford. “Physiologic Consequences of Training.” Cardiologic Clinics 15, no. 3 (1997): 345–54.

Sutton, J. R. “Limitations to Maximal Oxygen Uptake.” Sports Medicine 13, no. 2 (1992): 127–33.


Sesboüe, B., and J. Y. Guinestre. “La Fatigue Musculaire.” Ann Readapt Med Phys 49, no. 6 (2006): 257–64, and 348–54.

O’Toole, M. L., and P. S. Douglas. “Applied Physiology of Triathlon.” Sports Medicine 19, no. 4 (1995): 251–67.

Maughan, R. J., and S. M. Shirreffs. “Recovery from Prolonged Exercise: Restoration of Water and Electrolyte Balance.” Journal of Sports Medicine 15, no. 3 (1997): 297–303.

Sharwood, K., M. Collins, et al. “Weight Changes, Sodium Levels, and Performance in the South African Ironman Triathlon.” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 12, no. 6 (2002): 391–9.

Cairns, S. P. “Lactic Acid and Exercise Performance: Culprit or Friend?Sports Medicine 36, no. 4 (2006): 279–91.

Fitzgerald, Matt. “Chocolate Milk Wins Again.” Triathlete, August 2011, 22.

Faude, Oliver, Wilfried Kindermann, et al.  “Lactate Threshold Concepts: How Valid Are They?Sports Medicine 39, no. 6 (2009): 469–90.

Beneke, Ralph, Renate M. Leithäuser, et al. “Blood Lactate Diagnostics in Exercise Testing and Training.” International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 6, no. 1 (2011): 8–24.

4 Nutrition


McGlone, Samantha. “What was your Biggest Nutrition Mistake?” Triathlete, October 2012.

Tipton, K. D., and O. C. Witard. “Protein Requirements and Recommendations for Athletes: Relevance of Ivory Tower Arguments for Practical Recommendations.” Clinics in Sports Medicine 26, no. 1 (2007): 17–36.

Burke, L. M., and J. A. Hawley. “Fat and Carbohydrate for Exercise.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 9, no. 4 (2006): 476–81.


Rehrer, N. J. “Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Ultra-Endurance Sport.” Sports Medicine 31, no. 10 (2001): 701–15.

Venderley, A. M., and W. W. Campbell. “Vegetarian Diets: Nutritional Considerations for Athletes.” Sports Medicine 26, no. 4 (2006): 293–305.

de Wit, J. N. “Nutritional and Functional Characteristics of Whey Proteins in Food Products.” Journal of Dairy Science 81, no. 3 (1998): 597–608.

Fitzgerald, Matt. “Test Fuel: Can Triathletes Eat Whatever They Want?” Inside Triathlon, 67.

Kadey, Matthew. “Powder Power: The Importance Of Dietary Protein .” Triathlete, November 2011, 134.

Berry, Sally. “Eat Your Way to Recovery.” Triathlete, August 2011, 136.

Fitzgerald, Matt. “Fueling for Weight Loss and Optimal Training.” Triathlete’s Ultimate Fuel Guide.

5 Science of swimming


Craig, Jr., Albert B., and David R. Pendergast. “Relationships of Stroke Rate, Distance per Stroke, and Velocity in Competitive Swimming.” (PDF - 1.4MB) Medicine and Science in Sports 11, no. 3 (1979): 278–83.

Toussaint, H. M., et al. “Effect of a Triathlon Wet Suit on Drag During Swimming.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 21, no. 3 (1989): 325–8.


Zamparo, P., D. R. Pendergast, et al. “An Energy Balance of Front Crawl.” European Journal of Applied Physiology 94, no. 1–2 (2005): 134–44.

Haman, François. “Shivering in the Cold: From Mechanisms of Fuel Selection to Survival.” Journal of Applied Physiology 100, no. 5 (2006): 1702–8.

6 Physics of bicycling

Ashburn, Rick. “The Physics of Moving a Bike.”, December 26, 2007.

The Physics of Bicycling.”

7 Running / form

Newton Shoes YouTube channel

Metzler, Brian. “Run Softly, Naturally: Can a Gait Makeover Improve Your Running?Running Times 364 (2009): 18–20.

Jungers, William L. “Barefoot Running Strikes Back.” Nature 463, no. 7280 (2010): 433-4.

Lieberman, Daniel E., Madhusudham Venkadesan, et. al. “Foot Strike Patterns and Collision Forces in Habitually Barefoot Versus Shod Runners.” Nature 463 (2010): 531–5.

Abbott, Henry. “How LeBron James and Dwayne Wade Run.”, March 3, 2011.

8 Spring Break No Readings.
9 Chemistry of cheating


Carlson, T. “Inside Dope: So You Think You Know All About Drugs and Triathlon?” Inside Triathlon (2008): 34–40.

Lardon, Michael T. “Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Where Should the Line Be Drawn and by Whom?Psychiatry 5, no. 7 (2008): 58–61.

Hoffmeister, Peter Brown. “Performance-Enchancing Drugs for Writers.” Huffington Post, August 11, 2011.


Birkeland, Kåre I., and Peter Hemmersbach. “The Future of Doping Control in Athletes: Issues Related to Blood Sampling.” Sports Medicine 28, no. 1 (1999): 25–33.

Saugy, M., et al. “Human Growth Hormone Doping in Sport.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 40, suppl. 1 (2006): i35–9.

Juhn, Mark S. “Popular Sports Supplements and Ergogenic Aids.” Sports Medicine 33, no. 12 (2003): 921–39. [This is a great article to review the 14 supplements that athletes are known to use. It includes both legal and illegal supplements.]

jerez1979. “The Carnage in Navalmoral Vandenbroucke.” January 21, 2008. YouTube. Accessed March 12, 2014.

10 Cycling aerodynamics


Prasuhn, Jay. “Drag Race: The Secret, Savvy Underworld of Triathlon’s Addiction to the Wind Tunnel.” Inside Triathlon. [unknown volume / issue]

11 Chemistry of clothing

Reisch, M. “What’s that Stuff? Spandex.” Chemical and Engineering News 77, no. 7 (1999): 70.

Ali, Ajmol, Robert H. Creasy, et al. “Physiological Effects of Wearing Graduated Compression Stockings During Running.” European Journal of Applied Physiology 109, no. 6 (2010): 1017–25.

Jakeman, John R., Chris Byrne, et al. “Lower Limb Compression Garment Improves Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Young, Active Females.” European Journal of Applied Physiology 109, no. 6 (2010): 1137–44.

Prazak, Tawnee. “Under Pressure.” Triathlete, June 2011.

12 Legal manipulation of your body


Fitzgerald, Matt. “Planning for Perfection: Nail your Early-Season Peak.” Triathlete Magazine, April 2007, 122–31.

Wolf, Lauren K. “Sports Drinks: Balanced Mixture of Sugar, Salt, and Other Additives Keeps Athletes Going Strong.” Chemical and Engineering News 87, no. 34 (2009): 36.


Shirreffs, S. M., and R. J. Maughan. “The Effect of Alcohol on Athletic Performance.” Current Sports Medicine Reports 5, no. 4 (2006): 192–6.

Cheuvront, S. N., et al. “Effect of ENDUROX™ on Metabolic Responses to Submaximal Exercise.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition 9, no. 4 (1999): 434–42.

Williams, M. B., et al. “Effects of Recovery Beverages on Glycogen Restoration and Endurance Exercise Performance.” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 17, no. 1 (2003): 12–9.

Titlow, L. W., J. H. Ishee, et al. “Failure of Caffeine to Affect Metabolism During 60 Minute Submaximal Exercise.” Journal of Sports Sciences 9, no. 1 (1991): 15–22.

Spriet, Lawrence L. “Caffeine and Performance.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition 5 (1995): S84–99.

Magkos, F., and S. A. Kavouras. “Caffeine Use in Sports, Pharmacokinetics in Man, and Cellular Mechanisms of Action.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 45, no. 7–8 (2005): 535-62. [If you ever want to know what really happens to caffeine in your body, read this article.]

Collomp, K., et al. “Benefits of Caffeine Ingestion in Sprint Performance in Trained and Untrained Swimmers.” European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 64, no. 4 (1992): 377–80.

13 Talk with Coach Jimmy Riccitello Riccitello, Jimmy. “Don’t Call It a Comeback.” Inside Triathlon
14 Triathlon Preparation


Millet, G. P., and D. J. Bentley. “The Physiological Responses to Running After Cycling in Elite Junior and Senior Triathletes.” International Journal of Sports Medicine 25, no. 3 (2004): 191–7.


Bentley, David J., Grégoire P. Millet, et al. “Specific Aspects of Contemporary Triathlon: Implications for Physiological Analysis and Performance.” Sports Medicine 32, no. 6 (2002): 345–59.

Watson, Lance. “Olympics-Distance Race-Day Fueling Strategies.” Triathlete’s Ultimate Fuel Guide, May, 2012.

Levine, B. D., and P. D. Thompson. “Marathon Maladies.” New England Journal of Medicine 352 (2005): 1516–8.

Course Info

As Taught In
Spring 2013
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