The videos listed below along with additional related videos are collected in Dr. Sastry’s YouTube playlist: Business Models for Scale & Sustainability in Global Health.

Please read the optional materials if your background knowledge in this domain needs to be shored up.

Part One: Growth and Scale

Introduction to global health

Challenges in reaching scale and why we focus on business models

Prepare to discuss CFW Shops and the challenges of reaching scale. Watch the video and read the two brief articles (plus two optional if needed) to prepare.

Required Video

“Health Care Franchise.” Week of May 25, 2007. PBS NOW. Accessed January 8, 2014.   
You may skip the first two minutes: the content starts at 2:04 and ends at 26:48. Click through on the links for more information. This video first aired in May 2007, but the ideas remain relevant.

Required Readings

Kim, Peter, and Jeffrey Bradach. “Why More Nonprofits Are Getting Bigger.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring 2012.   
A recent study found that the number of U.S. nonprofits with annual revenues of more than $50 million has increased dramatically.

Rottenburg, Linda, and Rhett Morris. “If You Want to Scale Impact, Put Financial Results First.” Harvard Business Review, January 9, 2013. Harvard Business Review (blog).   
Endeavor CEO Linda Rottenberg’s & director of Endeavor Insight, Rhett Morris’ inaugural article for HBR-Bridgespan Insight Center on Scaling Social Impact, which is a partnership between the Harvard Business Review and The Bridgespan Group, supported by the Omidyar Network that shares stories, insights, and lessons from the most innovative voices in the field.

Optional Readings

Magretta, Joan. “Why Business Models Matter.” Harvard Business Review, May 2002.   
For MBA/Management background students from HBR 2002, good intro on business models.

Bradach, Jeffrey. “Going to Scale: The Challenge of Replicating Social Programs.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Spring 2003, 19–25.


Cooperative approaches as growth strategies

Case discussion: Hello Healthcare

In-class call with CEO York Zucchi

Prepare Hello Healthcare case.


Wocke, Albert. “Hello Healthcare: Taking a Cooperative Business into Africa.” Ivey Publishing. Case No. 9B13M076, August 7, 2013.

Required Readings

Guest, Peter. “Spelling Out Growth.” The Wall Street Journal, 2011.

Johnson, Mark W., Clayton M. Christensen, et al. “Reinventing Your Business Model.” Harvard Business Review, December 1, 2008.

York Zucchi biography (PDF)


Innovations in operational efficiency and potential for scaling up

Case discussion: Riders for Health

Prepare case, reading, and video; individual assignment due today.


Lee, Hau, and Brian Tayan. “Riders for Health. Health Care Distribution Solutions in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Harvard Business Publishing. Case No. GS58.

Required Readings

Yadav, Prashant, Orla Stapleton, et al. “Learning from Coca-Cola.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Winter 2013.

Required Video

RidersForHealthTV. “Uncommon Heroes – Riders for Health.” March 25, 2011. YouTube. Accessed January 10, 2014.

Optional Videos

RidersForHealthTV. “The Health Show: Sample Transport.” September 12, 2011. YouTube. Accessed January 10, 2014.

———. “Alvin’s Good Guide to Business - Riders for Health.” April 27, 2011. YouTube. Accessed January 10, 2014.


Business thinking, innovation and scale

Case discussion: Avahan India AIDS Initiative

Prepare to discuss the case and readings in class.


Cole, Claire. “The Avahan India AIDS Initiative: Managing Targeted HIV Prevention at Scale.” Global Health Delivery Project_._ Case No. GHD-020.

Required Readings

Kim, Jim Yong, Paul Farmer, et al. “Redefining Global Health-Care Delivery.” The Lancet 382, no. 9897 (2013): 1060–9.

Optional Readings

Sgaier, Sema K, et al. “How the Avahan HIV Prevention Program Transitioned from the Gates Foundation to the Government of India.” Health Affairs 32, no. 7 (2013): 1265–73.

Rhatigan, et al. “Applying the Care Delivery Value Chain: HIV/AIDS Care in Resource Poor Settings.” (PDF) HBS Working Paper no. 09–093, 2009.

Part Two: Philanthropy and Partnerships
5 Workshop on strategy: Work in your teams to apply a strategy framework to the organization you are studying for your mini-case

Prepare readings.

Required Reading

Porter, M. E. “What is Value in Health Care?” (PDF) New England Journal of Medicine 363 (2010): 2477–81.

Optional Readings

Supplementary Appendix 1 (PDF)

Supplementary Appendix 2 (PDF) to Porter, M. E. “What is Value in Health Care?New England Journal of Medicine 363 (2010): 2477–81.


Public-private collaboration

Case discussion: SMS for Life


Moncef, Anna, and Donald A. Marchand. “SMS for Life (A): A Public-private Collaboration to Prevent Stock-outs of Life-saving Malaria Drugs in Africa.” (PDF) IMD-3–2168, 2012.

Kania, John, and Mark Kramer. “Collective Impact.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Winter 2011.

Required Reading

Gupta, Anil K. “Tapping the Entrepreneurial Potential of Grassroots Innovation.” Supplement to Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2013.

Optional Readings

Hanleybrown, Fay, John Kania, et al. “Channeling Change: Making Collective Impact Work.” (PDF) Stanford Social Innovation Review, January 2012.

Sekhri, Neelam, Richard Feachem, et al. “Public-Private Integrated Partnerships Demonstrate the Potential to Improve Health Care Access, Quality, and Efficiency.” Health Affairs 30, no. 8 (2011): 1498–1507.

Jakobsen, Palle H., Ming-Wei Wang, et al. “Innovative Partnerships for Drug Discovery against Neglected Diseases.” Public Library of Science Neglected Tropical Diseases 5, no. 9 (2011): e1221.

Part Three: Promising Business Models

Innovative strategy meets innovative operations: A systems thinking assessment

Case discussion: Aravind Eye Clinic and the application of strategy to the enterprise

Prepare to discuss the following in class, treating the materials as a case. Allow plenty of time to view video, paying careful attention to the underlying business model and taking notes.

Required Video

Thulasiraj Ravilla. “How Low-cost Eye Care can be World-class.” TED Talk. Filmed November 2009, posted December 2009. Accessed January 14, 2014.

Required Reading

Rangan, V. Kasturi, and R. D. Thulasiraj. “The Aravind Eye Care System: Making Sight Affordable.” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 2, no. 4 (2007): 35–52.


Franchise models

Case discussion: Living Goods and the promise of business-format franchise models

Prepare the following; draft executive summary and presentation deck due. Make an appointment to meet the TA for feedback this week.


Gupta, Vivek, and Indu Perepu. “Living Goods – Developing a Sustainable Business Model to Provide Healthcare Services in Uganda.” ICMR IBS Case No. BECG104. 2009.

Required Readings

Beck, Steve, Wouter Deedler, et al. “Franchising in Frontier Markets.” Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 5, no. 14 (2010): 153–62.   
What’s working, what’s not, and why.

BRAC in Business.” February 18, 2010. The Economist. From the print edition.

Smillie, Ian. “Learning, Development, and Money: Lessons from Bangladesh.” The Philanthropist 22, no. 2 (2009): 82–8.

Optional Readings

Section 3 Downstream distributors and Section 4 Franchising:

Pindyk, Robert S. “Lecture Notes on Vertical Structure.” (PDF - 5.3MB) August 2011, pp. 21–5.

Bishai, David M., et al. “Social Franchising to Improve Quality and Access in Private Health Care in Developing Countries.” (PDF - 5.2MB) Harvard Health Policy Review 9, no. 1 (2008): 184–97.

Spainhower, Kirsten. “BRAC: A Laboratory for Systemic Solutions.” Development Outreach 12, no. 1 (2010): 44–55.

Huffington Post BRAC article   
Chowdhury, Mushtaque. “Saving Lives and Livelihoods: Resilience in the Context of Health.” Huffington Post Impact. team. “Chowdhury Champions Constant Learning, Evaluation and Innovation in Research.” October 13, 2010. (blog).


Organizational sustainability and scale

Case discussion: Narayana Hrudayalaya

Prepare Case and Reading.


Khanna, Tarun, and V. Kastguri Rangan. “Narayana Hrudayalaya Heart Hospital: Cardiac Care for the Poor (A).” Harvard Business School, Case # 50578-PDF-ENG.

Required Reading

Prahalad, C. K., and R. A. Mashelkar. “Innovation’s Holy Grail.” Harvard Business Review, July 1, 2010.

Part Four: New Ideas and Challenging Tradeoffs in Scale, Sustainability, and Impact

First set of student team presentations

Special guest: Rebecca Weintraub

Discussion on links to learning and innovation theme

Read and carefully consider the following along with the executive summaries provided by each of today’s presenting groups. Also read the guests’ bios.

Required Readings

Milway, Katie Smith, and Amy Saxton. “The Challenge of Organizational Learning.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2011.

Seelos, Christian, and Johanna Mail. “Innovate and Scale: A Tough Balancing Act.” Supplement to Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2013.

Rebecca Weintraub biography (PDF)


Second set of student team presentations

Special guests: Tricia Morente and Ratan Tata

Discussion on transfer and reverse innovation

Read and carefully consider the following along with the executive summaries provided by each of today’s presenting groups. Also read the guests’ bios.

Required Readings

Govindrajan, Vijay, and Chris Trimble. “Partners in Health’s Radical Model for Care: Adapting Emerging-Market Healthcare Innovations to Rich-World Populations.” Harvard Business Press Chapters. April 10, 2012. Prod. # 9211BC-PDF-ENG.

Onie, Rebecca, Paul Farmer, et al. “Realigning Health with Care.” Stanford Social Innovation Review, Summer 2012.

Tricia Morente biography (PDF)

Ratan Tata biography (PDF)

Optional Readings

DePasse, Jacqueline W., and Patrick T. Lee. “A Model for ‘Reverse Innovation’ in Health Care.” Globalization and Health 9, no. 40 (2013).


Third set of student team presentations

Special guests: Srishti Gupta and Heather Megosh

Wrap-up discussion reflecting on class themes

Read the executive summaries provided by each of today’s presenting groups, and the guests’ bios.

Biographies for class guests, Srishti Gupta and Heather Megosh (PDF)

Course Info

As Taught In
Fall 2013
Learning Resource Types
Projects with Examples
Lecture Notes
Written Assignments with Examples
Presentation Assignments
Instructor Insights