This section provides the required readings for the course. Additional references are also provided.
LEC #  TOPICS  READINGS  

1  Overview of Semiconductor Manufacturing 
Boning, Duane S., Jerry Stefani, and Stephanie W. Butler. “Statistical Methods for Semiconductor Manufacturing.” May, Gary S., and Costas J. Spanos. “Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing copyright 2002.” Chapter 1 in Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control. July 2002, pp. 122. ISBN: 0471784060. Montgomery, D. C. “Inferences about Process Quality.” Chapter 3 in Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. 1st ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 1985. ISBN: 0471808709. Webster, J. G., ed. Encyclopedia of Electrical Engineering. New York, NY: Wiley, 1999. Pp. 463479. ISBN: 0471139467. Appendix IVIII. Various Statistical Tables. Unknown. 

Statistical Process Control  
2  Statistics Review: Distributions 
Moore, Gordon E. “The Experts Look Ahead. Cramming more Components onto Integrated Circuits.” Electronics 38, no. 8 (April 19, 1965). Appendix A: Electronic Genie: Patric Haggerty’s Forcecast (1964). University of Illinois Press. 

3  Statistics Review: Estimation  Montgomery. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. 3rd ed. pp. 113116. ISBN: 0471303534.  
4  Hypothesis Tests and Control Chart Introduction  Drain, David. “Variance Components and Process Sampling Design.” Chapter 3 in Statistical Methods for Industrial Process Control. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall. ISBN: 0412085119.  
5  Control Charts  
6  Advanced Control Charts, Nested Variance  
Experimental Design  
7  Analysis and Design of Experiments  
8  ANOVA, Variance Component Estimation  
9  MANOVA, Factorial Experiments 
Clark, Thomas E., M. Chang, and Cissy Leung. “Response Surface Modeling of High Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposited Blanket Tungsten.” J Vac Sci Technol B 9, no. 3 (May/June 1991). Copyright 1991 American Vacuum Society. May, Gary S., and Costas J. Spanos. “Yield Modeling.” Chapter 5 in Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control. January 2002. ISBN: 0471784060. ———. “Statistical Experimental Design.” Chapter 7 in Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control. May 2002. ISBN: 0471784060. Notes from C. Spanos, U. C. Berkeley. “Yield”. 

Quiz #1  
Yield and Yield Learning  
10  Design of Experiments and Response Surface Modeling 
Ciplickas, D. J., X. Li, and A. J. Strojwas. “Predictive Yield Modeling of VLSIC’s.” 5th International Workshop on Statistical Metrology (IWSM). IEEE (June 2000): 2837. Honolulu, HA. Hess, Christopher. “Universal Characterization Vehicle (UCV) and Fast Testing Methods.” Presentation. PDF Solutions Inc. Stapper, Charles H., and Raymond J. Rosner. “Integrated Circuit Yield Management and Yield Analysis: Development and Implementation.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 8, no. 2 (May 1995). 

11  RSM and Regression 
Davis, J. C., R. S. Gyurcsik, JC Lu, and J. M. HughesOliver. “A Robust Metric for Measuring WithinWafer Uniformity.” IEEE Transations on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology  Part C 19, no. 4 (Oct 1996). Guo, RS., and E. Sachs. “Modeling, Optimization and Control of Spatial Uniformity in Manufacturing Processes.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, 6, no. 1 (February 1993). May, Gary S., and Costas J. Spanos. “Statistical Process Control.” Chapter 6 in Fundamentals of Semiconductor Manufacturing and Process Control. December 2001. ISBN: 0471784060. Mozumder, P. K., and L. M. Loewenstein. “Method for Semiconductor Process Optimization Using Functional Representations of Spatial Variations and Selectivity.” IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, 15, no. 3 (June 1992). 

12  Yield Management and Modeling  
13  Yield Modeling  
Advanced Process Control  
14  Spatial Modeling  Spanos, C. J., Guo HF, A. Miller, and J. LevineParrill. “RealTime Statistical Process Control Using Tool Data.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 5, no. 4 (November 1992).  
15  Sensors and Signals  Sachs, E., A. Hu, and A. Ingolfsson. “Run by Run Process Control: Combining SPC and Feedback Control.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 8, no. 1 (February 1995).  
16  PCA and Time Series 
SCRAP? Schaper, C., M. Moslehi, K. Saraswat, and T. Kailath. “Control of MMST RTP: Repeatability, Uniformity, and Integration for Flexible Manufacturing.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 7, no. 2 (May 1994). SCRAP? Knight, T. J., D. W. Greve, X. Cheng, and B. H. Krogh. “RealTime Multivariable Control of PECVD Silicon Nitride Film Properties.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 10, no. 1 (February 1997). 

17  Run by Run Control 
Gershwin, S. B. “Markoc Chains and Processes.” Chapter 2 in Manufacturing Systems Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1993. ISBN: 013560608X. Wein, L. M. “Scheduling Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 1, no. 3 (August 1988). 

18  Real Time Control, Scheduling 
Cunningham, S. P., and J. G. Shanthikumar. “Empirical Results on the Relationship Between Die Yield and Cycle Time in Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 9, no. 2 (May 1996). Ehteshami, B., R. G. Petrakian, and P. M. Shabe. “TradeOffs in Cycle Time Management: Hot Lots.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 5, no. 2 (May 1992). Glassey, C. R., and M. G. C. Resende. “ClosedLoop Job Release Control for VLSI Circuit Manufacturing.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 1, no. 1 (February 1988). Leachman, R. C. “ClosedLoop Measurement of Equipment Efficiency and Equipment Capacity.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 10, no. 1 (February 1997). Leachman, R. C., and D. A. Hodges. “Benchmarking Semiconductor Manufacturing.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 9, no. 2 (May 1996). Lu, S. C. H., D. Ramaswamy, and P. R. Kumar. “Efficient Scheduling Policies to Reduce Mean and Variance of CycleTime in Semiconductor Manufacturing Plants.” IEEE Transactions Semiconductor Manufacturing 7, no. 3 (August 1994). Miller, D. J. “Simulation of a Semiconductor Manufacturing Line.” Communications of the ACM 33, no. 10 (October 1990). Uzsoy, R., CY, Lee, and L. A. MartinVega. “A Review of Production Planning and Scheduling Models in the Semiconductor Industry. Part I: System Characteristics, Performance Evaluation and Production Planning.” IIE Transactions 24, no. 4 (1992). ———. “A Review of Production Planning and Scheduling Models in the Semiconductor Industry. Part II: ShopFloor Control.” IIE Transactions 26, no. 5 (September 1994). Wein, L. M. “On the Relationship Between Yield and Cycle Time in Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication.” IEEE Transaction on Semiconductor Manufacturing 5, no. 2 (May 1992). Wood, S. C. “Cost and Cycle Time Performance of Fabs Based on Integrated SingleWafer Professing.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 10, no. 1 (February 1997). 

Factory Operation and Design  
19  Scheduling 
Gershwin, S. “Linear Programming.” Chapter 7 in Manufacturing Systems Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1993. ISBN: 013560608X. Hung, YF. and R. C. Leachman. “A Production Planning Methodology for Semiconductor Manufacturing Based on Iterative Simulation and Linear Programming Calculations.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 9, no. 2 (May 1996). Leachman, R. C., and T. F. Carmon. “On Capacity Modeling for Production Planning with Alternative Machine Types.” IIE Transactions 24, no. 4 (September 1994). 

Quiz #2  
20  Planning 
Elrod, S. A. and W. Worth. “33. Environment, Safety, and Health.” pp. 10271045. Unknown. Leachman, R. C. “ClosedLoop Measurement of Equipment Efficiency and Equipment Capacity.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 10, no. 1 (February 1997). Leachman, R. C. and D. A. Hodges. “Benchmarking Semiconductor Manufacturing.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 9, no. 2 (May 1996). McGehee, J., J. Hebley, and J. Mahaffey. “The MMST ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing System Framework.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 7, no. 2 (May 1994). Wood, S. C. “Cost and Cycle Time Performance of Fabs Based on Integrated SingleWafer Processing.” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 10, no. 1 (February 1997). Student Projects Cai, H. and X. Xie. “Copper Electrochemical Deposition Topography Regression.” 6.780 Semiconductor Manufacturing Term Project, May 12, 2003. Chandler, T., and S. Hung. “Analysis of Variation Sources in Ring Oscillator Layouts (May 2003)”. Chen, J. “Improvement in Mechanoluminescence intenity of Ca2Al2Si07: Ce by statistical approach”. Lyon, E., and K. Noh. “Statistical Analysis of InSitu Endpoint Detection in Copper ChemicalMechanical Polishing.” Sargeant, R. and E. Smith. “6.780  Semiconductor Manufacturing Term Project  Data Analysis: Integrated ModelBased RuntoRun Uniformity Control for Epitaxial Silicon Depostion by A. E. Gower Hall”. Somani, A., L. W. Teo, and D. S. Boning. “Spatial Analysis of Ring Oscillator Devices.” Welton, T. S. “Determining Factors that Significatly Impact Injury Levels in a Production Facility.” 

21  Factory Design and Efficiency 
References and Resources
Highly Recommended
Montgomery, D. C. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. 4th ed. New York, NY: Wiley, 2000. ISBN: 0471316482.
Note that the fourth edition has material and examples drawn from semiconductor manufacturing, and is much preferred over the 1st edition.
Drain, D. Statistical Methods for Industrial Process Control. New york, NY: Chapman and Hall, 1997. ISBN: 0412085119.
This book is focused on statistical methods for semiconductor manufacturing.
Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology. Edited by Y. Nishi and R. Doering. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 2000. ISBN: 0824787838.
A broad coverage of both process technology and manufacturing issues.
Additional Resources
Statistical Methods Texts focused on Semiconductor Manufacturing.
Drain, D. Handbook of Experimental Methods for Process Improvement. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall, 1997. ISBN: 0412127016.
Statistical Case Studies for Industrial Process Improvement. Edited by V. Czitrom and P. D. Spagon. ASASIAM, 1997. ISBN: 0898713943.
Statistical Applications in Process Control. Edited by J. B. Keats, and D. C. Montgomery. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 1996. ISBN: 0824797116.
Phadke, M. S. Quality Engineering Using Robust Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. ISBN: 0137451679.
Walker, D. M. H. Yield Simulation for Integrated Circuits. Boston, MA: Kluwer, 1987. ISBN: 0898382440.
Semiconductor Process/Device Technology
Xiao, Hong. Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. ISBN: 0130224049.
Plummer, J. D., M. Deal, and P. B. Griffin. Silicon VLSI Technology – Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. ISBN: 0130850373.
Microelectronics Manufacturing Diagnostics Handbook. Edited by A. H. Landzberg. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. ISBN: 0442004710.
Handbook of Silicon Semiconductor Metrology. Edited by A. C. Diebold. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 2001. ISBN: 0824705068.
Wolf, S., and R. N. Tauber. Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era: Volume 1  Process Technology. Sunset Beach, CA: Lattice Press, 1986. ISBN: 0961672137.
General Texts  Statistical Methods
Box, G. E. P., W. G. Hunter, and J. S. Hunter. Statistics for Experimenters. New York, NY: WileyInterscience, 1978. ISBN: 0471093157.
Miller, R. G., Jr. Beyond Anova: Basics of Applied Statistics. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall, 1997. ISBN: 0412070111.
Ross, S. M. Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers and Scientists. New York, NY: Wiley, 1987. ISBN: 047181752X.
Spanos, A. Statistical Foundations of Econometric Modeling. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN: 0521269121.
General Texts  Manufacturing Systems
Gershwin, S. B. Manufacturing Systems Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993. ISBN: 013560608X.
Relevant Journals
IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing.
American Statistical Society and American Society of Quality Control. Technometrics.
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.
Solid State Technology. Monthly trade publication by PennWell.
Semiconductor International. Monthly trade publication by Cahners.
Electronic News. Weekly trade newspaper by Cahners.