# 4. Techniques of Integration

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## Introduction

This unit covers advanced integration techniques, methods for calculating the length of a curved line or the area of a curved surface, and “polar coordinates” which are an alternative to the Cartesian coordinates most often used to describe positions in the plane.

Part A: Trigonometric Powers, Trigonometric Substitution and Completing the Square

Part B: Partial Fractions, Integration by Parts, Arc Length, and Surface Area

Part C: Parametric Equations and Polar Coordinates

Exam 4

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