|Concepts||solute, solvent, solution, solubility rules, solubility product|
|Keywords||water, mixture, colloid, ionic compound, van der Waals force, Madelung constant, suspension, dispersion, molarity, crystallization, miscibility, precipitation, equilibrium constant, saturation, conductivity, common ion effect, homogenization, Arrhenius|
|Chemical Substances||carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), potassium permanganate (KMgO4), silver chloride (AgCl)|
|Applications||water desalinization, glass manufacturing, bulk metallic glass|
Before starting this session, you should be familiar with:
- The Bonding and Molecules module (Session 7 through Session 12)
- Chemistry of glasses (Amorphous Materials module), in Session 21 and Session 22
After completing this session, you should be able to:
- Define what makes an “aqueous solution.”
- Explain the behavior of ionic compounds in water.
- Calculate molarity of a solution.
- Predict the solubility of different combinations of solutes and solvents, given the chemical properties of those compounds.
- Explain the dynamics of solutions using the concepts of equilibrium constant, solubility product, and common ion effect.
|[Saylor] 13.1, “Factors Affecting Solution Formation.”||Forming a solution; roles of enthalpy and entropy|
|[Saylor] 13.2, “Solubility and Molecular Structure.”||Factors affecting solubility; molecular interactions in liquids; solutions of solids; solubility of ionic substances|
|[Saylor] 13.3, “Units of Concentration.”||Molarity and mole fraction as measures of concentration|
|[Saylor] 17.1, “Determining the Solubility of Ionic Compounds.”||Solubility product Ksp, ion product, common ion effect|
|[Saylor] 17.4, “Solubility and pH.”||Acid-base equilibriua effects on solubility; basic, acidic, and amphoteric oxides; using pH for selective precipation|
This session surveys the chemistry of aqueous solutions, in which ionic compounds are dissolved in liquid water as a solvent. The rule “like dissolves like” means that a solute tends to dissolve best in a solvent with similar chemical structure. Molarity is defined as a measure of solubility, and conventions for classifying substances as soluble and insoluble are presented. The session also defines and examines the importance of equilibrium constant K and solubility product Ksp, and the common ion effect.
The class ends with a discussion of the properties of amorphous glasses, including recent advances in fabrication and product manufacturing using bulk metallic glasses.
|[Saylor] 17.1, “Determining the Solubility of Ionic Compounds.”||1, 6||2, 3, 10, 18, 21|
For Further Study
Chang, Kenneth. “The Nature of Glass Remains Anything but Clear.” The New York Times, July 29, 2008.