Biochemistry

Glycolysis, Respiration, and Fermentation

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Session Overview

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This session will outline the cellular mechanisms for harvesting energy from glucose and related sugars. It will briefly outline glycolysis as a mechanism to generate ATP and discuss the fate of the pyruvate produced in glycolysis under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

Learning Objectives

  • To understand how cells harvest chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate.
  • To know the different ways that pyruvuate is catabolized based upon the presence and absence of oxygen.
  • To understand what fermentation is, when it occurs, and why it is important.
  • To understand what the Citric acid cycle is, when it occurs, and why it is important.
  • To understand what Oxidative Phosphorylation is, when it occurs, and why it is important.

Session Activities

Lecture Video

Watch the lecture video excerpt

Check Yourself

Question 1

In the process of glycolysis, one glucose molecule is oxidized to form 2 pyruvates and which of the following?

2 ADP close
2 ATP close
2 NADH close
2 NAD+ close
Oxygen close
both 2 NADH and 2 ADP close
both 2 NADH and 2 ATP check
both 2 NAD+ and 2 ATP close
Check

Question 2

In a yeast cell under anaerobic conditions, the NADH (from glycolysis) donates electrons to __________, which produces _________ additional ATP?

ADP, two close
Oxygen, two close
Phosphorus, two close
ethanol, two close
none of these options check
pyruvate, two close
Check Show Solution

In a yeast cell under anaerobic conditions, NADH donates electrons to pyruvate. Although this reaction does not produce any additional ATP, it regenerates the NAD+ needed for subsequent rounds of glycolysis.

Question 3

In a yeast cell under aerobic conditions, pyruvate is oxidized to Acetyl CoA which enters the _________. NADH donates electrons to __________. The total ATP/glucose produced from these processes and glycolysis is __________.

Calvin Cycle, a protein of the electron transport chain, ~18 close
Calvin Cycle, oxygen, ~18 close
Citric acid cycle, ATP synthase, ~32 close
Citric acid cycle, a protein of the electron transport chain, ~32 check
electron transport chain, oxygen, ~32 close
Check

Session Activities

Practice Problems

Further Study

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